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A quiet revolution
Author: Simha Goldin

The Jewish society that lived amongst the Christian population in medieval Europe presents a puzzle and a challenge to any historian. This book presents a study on the relationship between men and women within the Jewish society that lived among the Christian population for a period of some 350 years. The study concentrates on Germany, northern France and England from the middle of the tenth century until the middle of the second half of the fourteenth century - by which time the Christian population has had enough of the Jewish communities living among them and expels them from almost all the places they were living in. The picture portrayed by Mishnaic and talmudic literature was that basically women lived under the authority of someone else (their fathers or husbands), therefore, their status was different from that of men. Four paradigms were the outcome of research blending questions raised within the spheres of gender research and feminist theory with the research methodology of social history. These were Rashi and the 'family paradigm'; the negative male paradigm; the Hasidic paradigm; and the community paradigm. The highest level of Jewish religious expression is the performance of the mitzvot - the divine Commandments. Women were not required to perform all the Commandments, yet their desire to perform and fully experience the mitzvot extended to almost all areas of halakhah. The book also describes how the sages attempted to dictate to women the manner of their observance of mitzvot set aside for women alone.

Simha Goldin

The highest level of Jewish religious expression is the performance of the mitzvot – the divine Commandments. In addition to those mitzvot that are understood, recognized, and defined as halakhah (Jewish Law), there also developed a wealth of customs ( minhagim ) that underwent changes over the course of time. Halakhah-based Commandments are found in or derived

in Jewish women in europe in the middle ages
Stephen Penn

City of God: Books 11–22 , trans. William Babcock (Hyde Park, NY: New City Press, 2013), p. 372. 11 The gratifying privilege is what is accorded to the righteous at the point of death, as a reward for their many years of righteous living. It would be regarded by Wyclif as entry into the kingdom of heaven, and hence the church triumphant. 12 This is a reference to the third chapter of On the Divine Commandments (the first tract of the Summa Theologiae ). See 34ii , above. 13 On the Soul

in John Wyclif
Honour and dishonour
Brian Pullan

noble or civil condition, or to clergy and ­religious, though notions of it varied according to one’s rank and status. A witness said of Giovanna of Vattaro, another village woman in the diocese of Feltre, ‘She lives with her husband, in the sweat of her brow, in the manner of poor people who live honourably’ – by obeying the divine commandment to Adam and Eve on their ejection from Eden and accepting the penalty of original sin.5 A married woman’s honour lay partly in her loyal support for a dependable husband, himself no blasphemer, gambler, tavern-haunter, beggar

in Tolerance, Regulation and Rescue
Brian Pullan

‘sin against nature’. This generally denoted intercourse between males, but occasionally involved women or girls. Sometimes it consisted of self-abuse, and sometimes it was used to prevent conception.83 By squandering semen and making conception impossible, one disobeyed the divine commandment to Adam and Eve, ‘Be fruitful and multiply, fill the earth and conquer it’.84 For sodomites deposited the seed in the wrong orifice, in vase indebito, or spilled it outside the body, so that no souls could spring from it. It could be said that most sexual encounters in a

in Tolerance, Regulation and Rescue
Paul Fouracre and Richard A. Gerberding

his purple robe shining with gold, a rough hair shirt pressed against the frame of his body for the ardour of faith. 148 And thus he was so steadfast that he was a proper and strong recruit in the service of the world while not veering from divine commandments, fulfilling the precept of God, when He said: Render unto Caesar the things that are Caesar’s and unto God the things that are God’s . 149 And thus the

in Late Merovingian France
T. J. H. McCarthy

straightened by the true life of Jesus with much gratitude for the ministry of the divine commandments. It was only German fury – ignorant, alas, of how to put aside its obstinacy and by no means willing to remember that they who love thy law have much peace , 1 or rather that it is possible to reach the eternal vision of peace 2 through peaceful prosperity in this

in Chronicles of the Investiture Contest
Julia Gallagher

the idea that mere human ‘reasoning’ was powerless in the face of divine commandment. The higher good could not be reached through human means, but by an abdication of human frailty and self-interest in favour of a higher, essentially nonhuman order. Wilberforce rooted his approach in the concept of inescapable original sin: humans could only achieve salvation by resort to a higher good. In his book, A Practical View, he writes: The Holy Scriptures speak of us as fallen creatures; in almost every page we shall find something that is calculated to abate the loftiness

in Britain and Africa under Blair
Alexander Samson

other Apostles was held in high esteem in the queen’s sacred conscience’.102 Mary’s wedding vows explicitly incorporated one of obedience, while Philip’s did not. She swore ‘from henceforth to be compliant and obedient to you as much in mind as in body’.103 This unreciprocated promise existed in tension with her decisive comment to Renard the previous autumn that although she would follow ‘the divine commandment, and would do nothing against his will… if he wishes to encroach in the government of the kingdom she would be unable to permit it’.104 Secondly, while Mary

in Mary and Philip
Benjamin J. Elton

-Zionism and its rejection of the belief that the Temple service would be restored. They therefore omitted references to the return of animal sacrifices in the liturgy. Even some United Synagogue congregations, for example Hampstead, Theology of J.H. Hertz 177 relegated them to silent recitation. As Hertz faced dissent on this point not just from groups outside his jurisdiction, but also inside it, he had to approach the issue with tact. He therefore praised those who prayed for a restoration of sacrifices as those who ‘yearn for the opportunity of fulfilling Divine

in Britain’s Chief Rabbis and the religious character of Anglo-Jewry, 1880–1970