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Andy Lawrence

they encounter in fieldwork situations. Throughout my travels with a camera I have found it necessary to evoke the way other people act and speak, summarise their actions and truncate their histories, and in doing so I have also considered my own part in their lives. I will attempt to convey some of the difficulties, as well as the pleasures, of this journey by using examples from my work. Daniel He, appearing in the first public screening of British Born Chinese Technique A documentary film develops through a continuous process of analytic thinking

in Filmmaking for fieldwork
Des O‘Rawe

This essay interweaves an analysis of Raymond Depardons short documentary film, 10 minutes de silence pour John Lennon (1980), with some broader reflections on time, cultural history, and silence. Shot in a single take, the film records the expressions, movements, and reactions of some of 200,000 mourners who gathered in Central Park to commemorate Lennons life six days after his death in December, 1980. Despite its observational form and aesthetic reticence, 10 minutes de silence renders unexpected coincidences of colour, perspective, gesture, and noise, spontaneous formations and patterns that resonate beyond the films actual moment and journalistic raison dêtre.

Film Studies
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The Films of Glasgow Corporation 1938-1978
Elizabeth Lebas

Glasgow Corporation had been sponsoring films for almost twenty years when in 1938 its Public Health Department commissioned seven silent films. This marked new relations between the Corporation and the emerging Scottish documentary film movement and a change of approach towards the films’ audiences and the city itself. The essay traces the Corporation‘s film sponsorship from the late 1930s to 1978 when the final images of Glasgow‘s Progress, the Corporation‘s last sponsored film - on its urban renewal projects were taken. By then the Corporation had been amalgamated into Strathclyde Regional Council, the century-long social project of reform had come to an end and television had made its own documentary impact. It argues that over time Corporation films served a variety of political and institutional purposes and often prefigured the fortunes of the city and its people.

Film Studies
Four Conversations with Canadian Communications Officers
Dominique Marshall

volunteers, to the rescue of archives in danger, the preparation of exhibits and documentary films, the celebration of anniversaries, the writing of policy briefs, the visit of humanitarians in university courses, and the visit of historians to humanitarian conferences. For professional historians of aid and development, such joint ventures provide a unique way to find and create documents required to understand the actions and the words of as many of those involved as possible, in as many contexts as possible. The five media specialists encountered in December 2020 for

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
The Visual Politics and Narratives of Red Cross Museums in Europe and the United States, 1920s to 2010s
Sönke Kunkel

action at a patient’s bed. Others included poster collections or TV screens that showed documentary film footage. In Geislingen, the exhibit also featured computers and a cinema tent, but that was an exception. Given the low budget of most German Red Cross museums, presentations were usually organized around historical objects, not by way of immersive multimedia environments. The visual politics of German Red Cross museums open an important window on a third variant of

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Visual Advocacy in the Early Decades of Humanitarian Cinema
Valérie Gorin

provided visual accountability of the success of ARA’s food distribution programs, tracking the tons of American products (including corn, milk, and cocoa) distributed under the supervision of ARA’s staff to eleven million starving Russians. During his early work in Belgium, ARA’s president Herbert Hoover, had already commissioned the documentary film Not Bread Alone to his publicity chief George Barr Baker, a former magazine editor. 1 The SCF also embraced the new tools of propaganda very quickly. Similar to the ARA, the SCF hired a publicist in 1920 and other

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
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Advertising, affluence and transatlantic relations, c. 1951–69
Author:

Advertising agencies were important conduits through which the norms of American consumption travelled eastwards across the Atlantic. This book explores the institutional developments in British advertising and the wider shape of the market for advertising services in the 1950s and 1960s. It details the growing internationalism of the advertising industry in Britain, including the increased presence of US-owned agencies in London and deals with the concern with the apparent 'Americanization'of British commerce. Considering its relationship with its parent company, the book explores the dynamics of Anglo-American advertising relations within the J Walter Thompson (JWT) company. It looks at the uses and development of market research within JWT London and allied companies, and examines the techniques that were used to generate ways of understanding the 'mass housewife'. It was the legacy of British documentary film making which helped to give a distinctive British character and feel to many of the early TV commercials produced in the 1950s and 1960s. The book explores the ways in which TV advertising focused on commercials which promoted washing powders, washing machines and convenience foods. It considers the reception of advertising by cultural critics and by those concerned with the broader governance of commercial life and consumption. The advertising people offered a positive and spirited defence of the role they performed and the pleasures of mass consumption in the age of affluence. For critics, advertising was seen as a harbinger of American 'hard sell' techniques of salesmanship within British business.

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This book presents Germaine Dulac as one of the few women pioneers of cinema and a committed feminist. It draws on a wealth of archival material – both films and documents – to study Dulac’s ‘behind the scenes’ work on filmmaking and her social/political activism in the field of cinema. The biographical and historical introduction contextualizes Germaine Dulac’s situation at the heart of the avant-garde. Three chapters organize her films and career around the three kinds of cinema that she especially promoted: ‘psychological’, ‘pure’, and ‘documentary.’ The conclusion contrasts Dulac’s contributions with those of Alice Guy Blaché, another early women film pioneer, highlighting their differing paths to recognition.

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David MacDougall

? Documentary films that focus on specific people are akin to biographies, in that they attempt to convey something of the person’s character and actions. Films made after the subject’s death can cover a lifetime, as evidenced by the numerous television programmes about famous artists, sports stars and politicians. These retrospective films typically rely on reminiscences, interviews and previously recorded archival footage, bolstered by additional material about the period in which the person lived. There is a

in The art of the observer
David MacDougall

T HERE is a curious ambiguity in how we think about documentary films. On the one hand a film is all about the concreteness of its subject, but on the other it is all about itself. The two seem mutually exclusive, like those trick drawings that make us see from two different perspectives, or see two different objects in one. In viewing films, the ambiguity is not just about distinguishing their different levels: of seeing the subject in itself and through its rendering, which is one way of

in The art of the observer