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The white woman in colonial India, c. 1820–1930
Author: Indrani Sen

This book explores colonial gendered interactions, with a special focus on the white woman in colonial India. It examines missionary and memsahibs' colonial writings, probing their construction of Indian women of different classes and regions, such as zenana women, peasants, ayahs and wet-nurses. The three groups of white women focused upon are memsahibs, missionaries and, to a certain extent, ordinary soldiers' wives. Among white women in colonial India, it was the female missionaries who undoubtedly participated most closely in the colonial 'civilising mission'. The book addresses through a scrutiny of the literary works written by 'New Indian Women', such as Flora Annie Steel. Cross-racial gendered interactions were inflected by regional diversities, and the complexity of the category of the 'native woman'. The colonial household was a site of tension, and 'the anxieties of colonial rule manifest themselves most clearly in the home'. The dynamics of the memsahib-ayah relationship were rooted in race/class hierarchies, domestic power structures and predicated on the superiority of the colonising memsahib. The book also examines colonial medical texts, scrutinising how they wielded authoritative power over vulnerable young European women through the power/knowledge of their medical directives. Colonial discourse sought to project the white woman's vulnerability to specific mental health problems, as well as the problem of addiction of 'barrack wives'. Giving voice to the Indian woman, the book scrutinises the fiction of the first generation of western-educated Indian women who wrote in English, exploring their construction of white women and their negotiations with colonial modernities.

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Marie Helena Loughlin

Islamic Fez and Christian Europe, but the picture he presents probably could not have avoided feeding his European readers’ assumption that Islam and the East were once again sites of ‘aberrant’ sexuality. In contrast, de Nicolay presents tribadism as endemic to Turkish culture, perversely encouraged by the Turkish husband’s stereotypical jealous possessiveness and his wielding of 86 Loughlin, Same-sex desire in early modern England.indd 86 18/12/2013 15:25:04 Travel Writings tyrannical domestic power. His domestic despotism makes his wife (or wives) seek sexual

in Same-Sex Desire in Early Modern England, 1550–1735
Paul Flenley

interests of the neighbours both in terms of their geopolitical position and their own domestic power structures and priorities. The EU language of conditionality and the external governance approach can also conflict with the selfidentity of the neighbours. This does not mean that the EU’s approach has no effect. However, it does mean that the effect may not be what the EU intends. In extreme cases, EU strategy can actually be counterproductive The limitations of the EU’s strategies 53 and contribute to destabilising the neighbourhood. EU-isation can also be taken up

in The European Union and its eastern neighbourhood
Challenges and opportunities

This book explores the evolving African security paradigm in light of the multitude of diverse threats facing the continent and the international community today and in the decades ahead. It challenges current thinking and traditional security constructs as woefully inadequate to meet the real security concerns and needs of African governments in a globalized world. The continent has becoming increasingly integrated into an international security architecture, whereby Africans are just as vulnerable to threats emanating from outside the continent as they are from home-grown ones. Thus, Africa and what happens there, matters more than ever. Through an in-depth examination and analysis of the continent’s most pressing traditional and non-traditional security challenges—from failing states and identity and resource conflict to terrorism, health, and the environment—it provides a solid intellectual foundation, as well as practical examples of the complexities of the modern African security environment. Not only does it assess current progress at the local, regional, and international level in meeting these challenges, it also explores new strategies and tools for more effectively engaging Africans and the global community through the human security approach.

Open Access (free)
The Algerian war and the ‘emancipation’ of Muslim women, 1954–62
Author: Neil Macmaster

In May 1958, and four years into the Algerian War of Independence, a revolt again appropriated the revolutionary and republican symbolism of the French Revolution by seizing power through a Committee of Public Safety. This book explores why a repressive colonial system that had for over a century maintained the material and intellectual backwardness of Algerian women now turned to an extensive programme of 'emancipation'. After a brief background sketch of the situation of Algerian women during the post-war decade, it discusses the various factors contributed to the emergence of the first significant women's organisations in the main urban centres. It was only after the outbreak of the rebellion in 1954 and the arrival of many hundreds of wives of army officers that the model of female interventionism became dramatically activated. The French military intervention in Algeria during 1954-1962 derived its force from the Orientalist current in European colonialism and also seemed to foreshadow the revival of global Islamophobia after 1979 and the eventual moves to 'liberate' Muslim societies by US-led neo-imperialism in Afghanistan and Iraq. For the women of Bordj Okhriss, as throughout Algeria, the French army represented a dangerous and powerful force associated with mass destruction, brutality and rape. The central contradiction facing the mobile socio-medical teams teams was how to gain the trust of Algerian women and to bring them social progress and emancipation when they themselves were part of an army that had destroyed their villages and driven them into refugee camps.

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Paul Flenley and Michael Mannin

of chapters. Elites in Ukraine, Belarus and Russia, for example, are Conclusion213 shown to be more instrumental in their approaches to EU-isation, preferring more pragmatic relations with the EU. Avoidance of deeper socialisation or ‘thick’ EU-isation helps preserve domestic power structures and practices. This somewhat diverse perspective on the salience of interest as a key factor in the effectiveness of the ENP/EaP is complicated by the inconsistencies that are evident between EU actors and institutions towards EU neighbourhood policies. For example in general

in The European Union and its eastern neighbourhood
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Cara Diver

family and children, and failure to meet gendered expectations of marriage. By examining the triggers of violence, we have gained a clearer understanding of domestic power struggles within marriage. This book has also analysed the role that other family members played in marital violence, focusing especially upon the presence of children within marital conflicts. Like their mothers, children were not always passive; many became directly involved in their parents’ disputes and some struggled to help their mothers. Moreover, we have seen that violence towards women was

in Marital violence in post-independence Ireland, 1922–96
Memsahibs, ayahs and wet-nurses
Indrani Sen

/class hierarchies, domestic power structures and predicated on the superiority of the colonising memsahib. However, in reality these colonial transactions inside the colonial nursery were not so neatly polarised. Rather, these interactions were complicated by tensions and ambivalences which provided oppositional spaces that threatened to destabilise the colonial hierarchies based on race and class and

in Gendered transactions
Cesare Cuttica

their power had been delegated by the community, princes were ‘ministers of the republic’. Hence his criticism of patriarchalism pointed to the assertion that Adam from the very ‘beginning of the creation’ held ‘the principate and consequently sovereignty over all men, and thus it could be derived from him, either through the natural origin of primogeniture, or through the will of Adam himself’.53 statements like this were, according to suarez, patently wrong. conceding only ‘domesticpower to Adam, his theory overtly collided with the configuration of the origins of

in Sir Robert Filmer (1588-1653) and the patriotic monarch
Stephen Emerson and Hussein Solomon

African societies by fanning the flames of existing problems. From Ethiopia, Eritrea, and Somalia in the Horn of Africa, across much of Central Africa and into Angola, Mozambique, and Zimbabwe in the south, the legacy of the Cold War still resonates today. Sadly it seems that there may well be a repetition of this Cold War dynamic with Beijing and Washington vying for influence. Chronic conflict and instability From domestic power struggles and clashes over national resources to competing territorial claims and irredentist and separatist movements, violent conflict is a

in African security in the twenty-first century