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On sitting down to read a letter from Freud
Nicholas Royle

registering the association of this table with somewhere in the region of Afghanistan – a beautifully carved, if rather battered and cracked little table you bought for five pounds at an auction in Cheam village with your mother one day in the 1970s – and seeing that you actually put the phone down on top of a small volume containing Wilhelm Jensen’s Gradiva and Freud’s ‘Delusion and Dream in Wilhelm Jensen’s Gradiva ’, 1 in such a way that it concealed the lower half of Freud’s face but left his piercing left eye still gazing out above it, his right eye in shadow, and

in Hélène Cixous
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Playing Scotsmen in mainland Europe
Author: David Hesse

Twenty-first-century Scottish play-acting draws depth and energy from a European and Western tradition of dreaming Scottish dreams, and this tradition dates back to at least the late eighteenth century, to the beginnings of European Romanticism. This book explores how contemporary celebrations of Scotland build upon earlier Scottish fantasies. The Scottish dreamscape is one of several pre-modern counter-worlds which have been approached through imitation in the past. The book examines the 'Scotland' that is on the play-actors' minds. The Scottish dreamscape was formed in an eighteenth- and nineteenth-century process now best known as Highlandism. It was then that Scotland became associated with the aesthetics and supposed characteristics of its Highland periphery. The book also explores the Scottish dreamscape's spread via the channels of the British Empire and American popular culture. It identifies five key carriers which helped to disseminate the Scottish aesthetic across the world, namely epic poetry, the Highland regiments, music hall entertainment, Hollywood films, and romance novels. The book further focuses on fieldwork conducted in 2009 and 2010. It sheds some light on the different forms of Scottish play-acting, on musicians, athletes, commemorators, and historical re-enactors. The pipers and athletes do not imitate the past; they perform in what they hope are old but living Scottish traditions. Commemorators and historical re-enactors have a different aim. They seek to recreate the past in the present. Finally, the book identifies some of the main reasons for the Scottish dreamscape's special resonance in northern and western Europe.

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Transforming the domestic interior
Hollie Price

’ and instead for ‘elegance, civility and grandeur’. 2 As this chapter explores, the nascent consumer culture surrounding domestic, suburban modernity in the 1930s demonstrated a comparable tension – caught between promoting the home as an escapist spectacle and celebrating conservative ideals of historical tradition, stability and Englishness. By attending to the growing consumerism surrounding domestic life in this earlier period, I resituate postwar aspirational interiors – ‘dream palaces’ onscreen – as engaging with interwar structures of feeling that negotiated

in Picturing home
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Nicholas Royle

What is this – dream in literature ? The phrase might be construed in at least three ways: the role and importance of dreams in literary works (in a short story, such as Edgar Allan Poe’s ‘Ligeia’; a poem, such as Percy Bysshe Shelley’s ‘The Question’; a play, such as Shakespeare’s A Midsummer Night’s Dream ; or a novel, such as Emily Brontë’s Wuthering Heights ); the impulse or compulsion to dream, to fall into reverie, to lose oneself in a dream or dreamlike state while reading a work of literature, the experience of

in Hélène Cixous
Peter Marks

reader lived’, and the ‘Dystopia or negative utopia – a utopia that the author intended a contemporaneous reader to view as considerably worse than the society the reader now lived’. 2 These definitions hold true for films. Claeys and Sargent also distinguish the ‘Utopian satire’, defining it as ‘a criticism of an existing society’. 3 They place these subgenres under the umbrella term ‘social dreaming

in Terry Gilliam
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Richard Hillman

alone, Helena’s reflex is to extend her disbelief to the absent Demetrius – and infinitely in time (‘never’): Wherefore was I to this keen mock’ry born? When at your hands did I deserve this scorn? Is’t not enough, is’t not enough, young man, That I did never, no, nor never can, Deserve a sweet look from Demetrius’ eye, But you must flout my insufficiency? (II.ii.123–8) And when Demetrius in person confronts her with what should be her dream come true, showering her with ‘sweet look[s]’, she only renews and deepens her resistance

in The Shakespearean comic and tragicomic
Narrating nation and identity
Susan Watkins

Dream , she explained that she was not writing a third volume of her autobiography ‘because of possible hurt to vulnerable people’. With these words she seemed to offer this novel as a substitute autobiography while simultaneously refusing that interpretation (she also stated that she had not ‘novelised autobiography’). The novel was widely read as an attack on the political idealism of the 1960s that attempted to revise or rewrite the radicalism of the period. In 2007, Lessing published The Cleft , an account of a Roman senator’s attempt to grapple with the

in Doris Lessing
Rebecca Munford

surrealists’ attempts to ‘reproduce the marvellous, to create a borderline world between dream and reality’ ( 2002 : 45). A more general preoccupation with play, inherited from the surrealists, runs through her work in the form of dreams, collage aesthetics and games. Implicated in complex operations of excess and boundedness, chance and convention, the notion of play brings into focus the tension between Carter’s textual

in Decadent Daughters and Monstrous Mothers
Transvaluation, Realization, and Literalization of Clarissa in The Monk
D. L. Macdonald

Lorenzo‘s dream, at the beginning of Lewis‘s The Monk (1796), is closely based on Lovelace‘s dream, near the end of Richardson‘s Clarissa (1747-48); the realization of Lorenzo‘s dream, in the rape and murder of Antonia at the end of Lewis‘s novel, is based closely on Clarissa‘s dream, near the beginning of Richardson‘s. Lewis consistently (in the terms Gérard Genette uses in Palimpsests) devalues Lovelace‘s dream and revalues Clarissa‘s, achieving a transvaluation of Richardson‘s novel. He also literalizes many of Richardson‘s metaphors, a process which, as Tzvetan Todorov argues in The Fantastic, is essential to the fantastic, and which as Margaret Homans argues in Bearing the Word, enables the articulation of womens experiences. As a result, The Monk, despite its conflicted sexual politics, does contribute to the feminization of fiction that was part of the historical project of the Gothic.

Gothic Studies
Ruin paintings and architectural fantasies
Hélène Ibata

203 7 u ‘Sublime dreams’: ruin paintings and architectural fantasies From the beginning of the eighteenth century, ruins, vestiges of the past and architectural fragments became an essential feature of the British cultural imaginary and a recurrent topos in the arts. For more than a century, the fascination they exerted was fuelled by archaeological discoveries, direct encounters with classical sites by British visitors on the Grand Tour and then social and political upheavals which forcefully drew attention to the transience of all things. Such an interest

in The challenge of the sublime