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Sherry Velasco

dolorida: la metamorfosis de la mujer en hombre’, Actas del Tercer Coloquio Internacional de la Asociación de Cervantistas (Barcelona: Anthropos, 1993), pp. 463–72. 37 Cited in Kenneth Brown, ‘Context i text del Vexamen d’academia de Francesc Fontanella’, Llengua i Literatura , 2 (1987), 173–252, 231. 38 Brown, ‘Context i text del Vexamen d’academia de Francesc Fontanella’, 231. See also Sherry Velasco, ‘María de Zayas and lesbian desire in early modern Spain’, in Librada Hernandez and Susana Chavez-Silverman (eds

in The last taboo

This book explores the Spanish elite’s fixation on social and racial “passing” and “passers” as represented in a wide range of texts produced in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. It examines literary and non-literary works that express the dominant Spaniards’ anxiety that socially mobile New Christians could impersonate and pass as versions of themselves. Current scholarship has implicitly postulated that the social energy that led to the massive marginalization of New Christians and/or lowborns from central social spaces, and the marginals’ attempts to hide their true identity, had its roots in the elite’s rejection of sociocultural and genealogical heterogeneity, or “difference.” Christina Lee makes a key intervention in this discussion by proposing that there was a parallel phenomenon at play that might have been as resounding as an anxiety roused by the presence of those who were clearly different, a phenomenon she calls “the anxiety of sameness.” Lee argues that while conspicuous religious and socio-cultural difference was certainly perturbing and unsettling, in some ways, it was not as threatening to the dominant Spanish identity as the potential discovery of the arbitrariness that separated them from the undesirables of society. Students and seasoned scholars of Spanish history and literature will not only benefit from Lee’s arguments about the elite’s attempt to deny the fluidity of early modern identity, but also gain from her fresh readings of the works of Cervantes, Lope de Vega, and Quevedo, as well as her analyses of lesser known works, such as joke books, treatises, genealogical catalogues, and documentary accounts.

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The marriage of Tudor England and Habsburg Spain

The co-monarchy of Mary I and Philip II put England at the heart of early modern Europe. This positive reassessment of their joint reign counters a series of parochial, misogynist and anti-Catholic assumptions, correcting the many myths that have grown up around the marriage and explaining the reasons for its persistent marginalisation in the historiography of Tudor England. Using new archival discoveries and original sources it argues for Mary as a great Catholic queen, while fleshing out Philip’s important contributions as king of England. It demonstrates the success and many positive achievements of this glittering dynastic union in everything from culture, music and art to cartography, commerce and exploration. Philip and Mary’s negative reputation derives from a particular version of English identity and reflects confessional differences in early modern English history. The acceptability of Mary’s foreign marriage will continue to reflect the evolving relationship between Britain and Europe, and its cultural politics. Moving from the commercial and strategic interests served by Anglo-Spanish alliances, it analyses the negotiations and marriage contract, Mary’s government, the Act for the Queen’s Regal Power, the Wyatt rebellion, the co-monarchy, gynophobic polemic, court culture and ceremony, bilingual lexicography, portraiture and print, and the historical (mis)fortunes of this glittering dynastic match.

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Christina H. Lee

. Especially applicable to early modern Spanish discourses is Douglas’s observation that ‘[i]t is only by exaggerating the difference between within and without, above and below, male and female, with and against, that a semblance of order is created’.3 This exaggeration is, then, a means for preventing the subversion of the established social order, but it is also a way to maintain the veneer of neatness in cases in which the supposed polluter challenges their predetermined role. My study further pursues the implications of circumstances when dirt, in its personified form

in The anxiety of sameness in early modern Spain
Robert Aldrich and Cindy McCreery

what the status of the new domains would be, what prerogatives the monarch would have or how administration would be exercised. Theories, laws and institutions of colonial governance changed markedly over time and place, not surprisingly so, considering the chronological and geographical breadth of empires. The early modern Spanish empire, as a case in point, was part of a ‘composite monarchy’ in which

in Crowns and colonies
Collective violence in colonial Spanish
Anthony McFarlane

This chapter argues that levels of collective violence in early modern Spanish America were remarkably low, especially when compared with contemporary Europe. Organized around the concept of a ‘Pax Hispanica’, the chapter explains the conditions that made long-term political and social peace possible until the early nineteenth century, when the collapse of Spanish rule promoted an unprecedented upsurge of collective violence. Several questions are considered. First, what was the incidence and character of collective violence in early modern Spanish America, and why were war and rebellion rare? Second, how and why was the Pax Hispanica affected by international warfare and colonial rebellion during the later eighteenth century? Third, how and why did the Pax Hispanica break down after 1810 and what were the main patterns, causes, and consequences of the collective violence that emerged during the Spanish imperial crisis of the 1810s and 1820s?

in A global history of early modern violence
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Women and body hair

This is an academic book on women and body hair, a subject which has, until now, been seen as too trivial, ridiculous or revolting to write about. Even feminist writers or researchers on the body have found remarkably little to say about body hair, usually not mentioning it at all. If women's body hair is noted, it is either simply to accept its removal as an inevitable aspect of female beautification, or to argue against hair removal as a return to a ‘natural’ and un-oppressed female body. The only texts to elaborate on body hair are guides on how to remove it, medical texts on ‘hirsutism’ or fetishistic pornography on ‘hairy’ women. This book asks how and why any particular issue can become defined as ‘self-evidently’ too silly or too mad to write about. Using a wide range of thinking from gender theory, queer theory, critical and literary theory, history, art history, anthropology and psychology, the contributors argue that, in fact, body hair plays a central role in constructing masculinity and femininity, as well as sexual and cultural identities. Arguing from the theoretical position that identity and the body are culturally and historically constructed, the chapters each analyse, through a specific focus, how body hair underpins ideas of the ‘cultural’ and ‘natural’ in Western culture.

David Graizbord

transform into ‘learned’ battering rams against the Jews. Such converts were highly atypical by the seventeenth century, however, and they could not match the exploits of late medieval arch-turncoats such as the religious disputants mentioned above. More common candidates for conversion in early modern Spain and Portugal included picaresque figures and other drifters who made of

in Conversions
Bodies and environments in Italy and England

This book explores whether early modern people cared about their health, and what did it mean to lead a healthy life in Italy and England. According to the Galenic-Hippocratic tradition, 'preservative' medicine was one of the three central pillars of the physician's art. Through a range of textual evidence, images and material artefacts, the book documents the profound impact which ideas about healthy living had on daily practices as well as on intellectual life and the material world in Italy and England. Staying healthy and health conservation was understood as depending on the careful management of the six 'Non-Naturals': the air one breathed, food and drink, excretions, sleep, exercise and repose, and the 'passions of the soul'. The book provides fresh evidence about the centrality of the Non-Naturals in relation to groups whose health has not yet been investigated in works about prevention: babies, women and convalescents. Pregnancy constituted a frequent physical state for many women of the early modern European aristocracy. The emphasis on motion and rest, cleansing the body, and improving the mental and spiritual states made a difference for the aristocratic woman's success in the trade of frequent pregnancy and childbirth. Preventive advice was not undifferentiated, nor simply articulated by individual complexion. Examining the roles of the Non-Naturals, the book provides a more holistic view of convalescent care. It also deals with the paradoxical nature of perceptions about the Neapolitan environment and the way in which its airs were seen to affect human bodies and health.

Christina H. Lee

6 Desirable Moors and Moriscos in literary texts The notion that the foreign Moor, a patently different individual in the context of Old Christian society, was less threatening than the Morisco, an ambiguous member of the Spanish body politic who embodied both Moorish and Old Christian cultural marks, is represented in a number of literary works of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. For the most part, early modern Spanish prose and poetry depicts the Moor as a depraved, unscrupulous, and fundamentally unredeemable figure. There are a number of notable

in The anxiety of sameness in early modern Spain