dolorida: la metamorfosis de la mujer en hombre’, Actas del Tercer Coloquio Internacional de la Asociación de Cervantistas (Barcelona: Anthropos, 1993), pp. 463–72.
37 Cited in Kenneth Brown, ‘Context i text del Vexamen d’academia de Francesc Fontanella’, Llengua i Literatura , 2 (1987), 173–252, 231.
38 Brown, ‘Context i text del Vexamen d’academia de Francesc Fontanella’, 231. See also Sherry Velasco, ‘María de Zayas and lesbian desire in earlymodernSpain’, in Librada Hernandez and Susana Chavez-Silverman (eds
This book explores the Spanish elite’s fixation on social and racial “passing” and “passers” as represented in a wide range of texts produced in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. It examines literary and non-literary works that express the dominant Spaniards’ anxiety that socially mobile New Christians could impersonate and pass as versions of themselves. Current scholarship has implicitly postulated that the social energy that led to the massive marginalization of New Christians and/or lowborns from central social spaces, and the marginals’ attempts to hide their true identity, had its roots in the elite’s rejection of sociocultural and genealogical heterogeneity, or “difference.” Christina Lee makes a key intervention in this discussion by proposing that there was a parallel phenomenon at play that might have been as resounding as an anxiety roused by the presence of those who were clearly different, a phenomenon she calls “the anxiety of sameness.” Lee argues that while conspicuous religious and socio-cultural difference was certainly perturbing and unsettling, in some ways, it was not as threatening to the dominant Spanish identity as the potential discovery of the arbitrariness that separated them from the undesirables of society. Students and seasoned scholars of Spanish history and literature will not only benefit from Lee’s arguments about the elite’s attempt to deny the fluidity of early modern identity, but also gain from her fresh readings of the works of Cervantes, Lope de Vega, and Quevedo, as well as her analyses of lesser known works, such as joke books, treatises, genealogical catalogues, and documentary accounts.
The co-monarchy of Mary I and Philip II put England at the heart of early modern
Europe. This positive reassessment of their joint reign counters a series of
parochial, misogynist and anti-Catholic assumptions, correcting the many myths
that have grown up around the marriage and explaining the reasons for its
persistent marginalisation in the historiography of Tudor England. Using new
archival discoveries and original sources it argues for Mary as a great Catholic
queen, while fleshing out Philip’s important contributions as king of England.
It demonstrates the success and many positive achievements of this glittering
dynastic union in everything from culture, music and art to cartography,
commerce and exploration. Philip and Mary’s negative reputation derives from a
particular version of English identity and reflects confessional differences in
early modern English history. The acceptability of Mary’s foreign marriage will
continue to reflect the evolving relationship between Britain and Europe, and
its cultural politics. Moving from the commercial and strategic interests served
by Anglo-Spanish alliances, it analyses the negotiations and marriage contract,
Mary’s government, the Act for the Queen’s Regal Power, the Wyatt rebellion, the
co-monarchy, gynophobic polemic, court culture and ceremony, bilingual
lexicography, portraiture and print, and the historical (mis)fortunes of this
glittering dynastic match.
applicable to earlymodernSpanish discourses is Douglas’s observation that
‘[i]t is only by exaggerating the difference between within and without, above
and below, male and female, with and against, that a semblance of order is created’.3 This exaggeration is, then, a means for preventing the subversion of the
established social order, but it is also a way to maintain the veneer of neatness
in cases in which the supposed polluter challenges their predetermined role.
My study further pursues the implications of circumstances when dirt, in its
what the status of the new domains would be, what
prerogatives the monarch would have or how administration would be
exercised. Theories, laws and institutions of colonial governance
changed markedly over time and place, not surprisingly so, considering
the chronological and geographical breadth of empires. The earlymodernSpanish empire, as a case in point, was part of a ‘composite
monarchy’ in which
This chapter argues that levels of collective violence in early modern
Spanish America were remarkably low, especially when compared with
contemporary Europe. Organized around the concept of a ‘Pax Hispanica’, the
chapter explains the conditions that made long-term political and social
peace possible until the early nineteenth century, when the collapse of
Spanish rule promoted an unprecedented upsurge of collective violence.
Several questions are considered. First, what was the incidence and
character of collective violence in early modern Spanish America, and why
were war and rebellion rare? Second, how and why was the Pax Hispanica
affected by international warfare and colonial rebellion during the later
eighteenth century? Third, how and why did the Pax Hispanica break down
after 1810 and what were the main patterns, causes, and consequences of the
collective violence that emerged during the Spanish imperial crisis of the
1810s and 1820s?
This is an academic book on women and body hair, a subject which has, until now, been seen as too trivial, ridiculous or revolting to write about. Even feminist writers or researchers on the body have found remarkably little to say about body hair, usually not mentioning it at all. If women's body hair is noted, it is either simply to accept its removal as an inevitable aspect of female beautification, or to argue against hair removal as a return to a ‘natural’ and un-oppressed female body. The only texts to elaborate on body hair are guides on how to remove it, medical texts on ‘hirsutism’ or fetishistic pornography on ‘hairy’ women. This book asks how and why any particular issue can become defined as ‘self-evidently’ too silly or too mad to write about. Using a wide range of thinking from gender theory, queer theory, critical and literary theory, history, art history, anthropology and psychology, the contributors argue that, in fact, body hair plays a central role in constructing masculinity and femininity, as well as sexual and cultural identities. Arguing from the theoretical position that identity and the body are culturally and historically constructed, the chapters each analyse, through a specific focus, how body hair underpins ideas of the ‘cultural’ and ‘natural’ in Western culture.
‘learned’ battering rams against the Jews. Such converts were
highly atypical by the seventeenth century, however, and they could
not match the exploits of late medieval arch-turncoats such as the
religious disputants mentioned above. More common candidates for
conversion in earlymodernSpain and Portugal included picaresque
figures and other drifters who made of
This book explores whether early modern people cared about their health, and what
did it mean to lead a healthy life in Italy and England. According to the
Galenic-Hippocratic tradition, 'preservative' medicine was one of the
three central pillars of the physician's art. Through a range of textual
evidence, images and material artefacts, the book documents the profound impact
which ideas about healthy living had on daily practices as well as on
intellectual life and the material world in Italy and England. Staying healthy
and health conservation was understood as depending on the careful management of
the six 'Non-Naturals': the air one breathed, food and drink,
excretions, sleep, exercise and repose, and the 'passions of the
soul'. The book provides fresh evidence about the centrality of the
Non-Naturals in relation to groups whose health has not yet been investigated in
works about prevention: babies, women and convalescents. Pregnancy constituted a
frequent physical state for many women of the early modern European aristocracy.
The emphasis on motion and rest, cleansing the body, and improving the mental
and spiritual states made a difference for the aristocratic woman's success
in the trade of frequent pregnancy and childbirth. Preventive advice was not
undifferentiated, nor simply articulated by individual complexion. Examining the
roles of the Non-Naturals, the book provides a more holistic view of
convalescent care. It also deals with the paradoxical nature of perceptions
about the Neapolitan environment and the way in which its airs were seen to
affect human bodies and health.
Desirable Moors and Moriscos in
The notion that the foreign Moor, a patently different individual in the context
of Old Christian society, was less threatening than the Morisco, an ambiguous
member of the Spanish body politic who embodied both Moorish and Old
Christian cultural marks, is represented in a number of literary works of the
sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. For the most part, earlymodernSpanish
prose and poetry depicts the Moor as a depraved, unscrupulous, and fundamentally unredeemable figure. There are a number of notable