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The Early Promise and Disappointing Career of Time-Lapse Photography
David Lavery

Time-lapse photography—the extremely accelerated recording and projection of an event taking place over an extended duration of time—is almost as old as the movies themselves. (The first known use of time-lapse dates from 1898.) In the early decades of the twentieth century, cineastes, not to mention scientists, artists, and poets, waxed eloquently on the promise of time-lapse photography as a means for revealing “things we cannot see,” and expanding human perception. This essay examines time-lapses tremendous initial imaginative appeal for such figures as Ernst Mach, Germaine Dulac, Jean Epstein, Rudolf Arnheim, Laszlo Moholy-Nagy, and Collette, and speculates about the possible reasons for its diminution over the course of the century.

Film Studies
Trauma, face and figure in Samuel Beckett
David Houston Jones

. Engelberts’s brief history of Beckett’s engagement with early film theory aptly foregrounds the troubled iconicity of the face, casting the struggle of the early theorists of ‘film as art’ as ‘a hymn to the camera and a song of praise of moving images projected on the big screen’ (2008: 162), a song to which Film belatedly lends it voice: Film is clearly a lamento on the gaze, and the cinematographic aesthetic here gives way on the screen to the theory of self-perception and being. End of the celebration of the gaze. In the face of the suffering that identifies him with a

in Samuel Beckett and trauma
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Theoretical debates and the critical erasure of Beckett’s cinema
Matthijs Engelberts

and as such it throws an exceptionally revealing light on the difficult nature of the relations between literature and emerging media in the twentieth century. Notes 1 Kamilla Elliott, Rethinking the Novel/Film Debate (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003), p. 17. 2 See for instance W. J. T. Mitchell, ‘Showing seeing: a critique of visual culture’, in Mirzoeff, Nicholas (ed.), The Visual Culture Reader, 2nd edn (London: Routledge, 2002), p. 91. 3 See Matthijs Engelberts, ‘Film and Film: Beckett and early film theory’, in Linda Ben-Zvi and Angela Moorjani

in Beckett and nothing
Epstein’s philosophy of the cinema
Christophe Wall-Romana

the silent period. The publication of Epstein’s collected Écrits in two volumes (1974, 1976) a few years before, was certainly part of the impetus to re-evaluate the silent era. In the US, Richard Abel gave a detailed analysis of key French narrative films between 1915–29, and he indicates that Marie Epstein showed him the films of her brother around 1976 (1984: xi). Stuart Liebman subsequently wrote the first analysis of Epstein’s early film theory for a Ph.D. dissertation (1980), while in France Noureddine Ghali embarked in 1984 on an ambitious analysis of French

in Jean Epstein
Sarah Wright

de siglo’, Ars Longa, 13, 121–​45. Alvares, Rosa (1996) La armonía que rompe el silencio:  Conversaciones con José Nieto, Valladolid: SGAE. Anon. (1930a) ‘Va desapareciendo el antiguo tipo de director de películas’, Popular Film, 195.5, 11. Anon. (1930b) ‘El teléfono y la voz de los actores de cine’, Popular Film, 183.5, 7. Balázs, Béla (2010) Early Film Theory: Visible Man and The Spirit of Film, ed. Erica Carter, trans. Rodney Livingston, Oxford: Berghahn Books. Brannigan, Erin (2011) DanceFilm:  Choreography and the Moving Image, New York: Oxford University

in Performance and Spanish film
Ian Aitken

early film theory, and formed a meaningful link between one central aspect of nineteenth-century naturalism and early French realist cinema, a more consequential influence on the development of that cinema can be located in another distinctive aspect of Zola’s work: the lyrical, pantheistic and idealistic style which was embraced in novels such as Germinal (1885) and La Terre (1887). This strand of Zolaesque naturalism also

in Realist film theory and cinema
Christophe Wall-Romana

questions of a ‘new emotional sense’, or ‘cinematic sensibility’, or prolonged sensory experience, all three authors examine in a clearly Epsteinian way. From this quite sophisticated volume, Benjamin excises for the ‘Work of Art’ essay three flat-footed passages from the most exulted of the four essays, that by Abel Gance. Benjamin wilfully leaves the link between photogénie theory and the optical unconscious by the wayside.18 His citational strategy aims only at illustrating, ‘the obtuse and hyperbolic character of early film theory’, in how ‘these theoreticians

in Jean Epstein
Andrew Klevan

actors, the costumes, the location, the lighting, and the mode of recording and reception. ‘This is a good film’ does not simply refer to merit; it does not only mean that this film is good, but that it is a good film. It is a good example of a category, namely film. The claim is about a film as distinct from a claim about a novel or a play or a piece of music. Early film theory was keen to establish the new medium as a distinct art, and was therefore necessarily evaluative. Each theorist argued for the merits of a film based on what they thought was the most important

in Aesthetic evaluation and film