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Kevin Harrison
Tony Boyd

Environmentalism and ecologism constitute one of the most recent ideological movements. Though the terms are often used interchangeably, it is more useful to regard ecologism as a philosophy that believes in a thorough-going root and branch transformation of society, whereas environmentalism believes that dangers to the environment can be tackled within the existing political

in Understanding political ideas and movements
Open Access (free)

In 2002, the French party system seems to be demonstrating a fluidity, if not outright instability, equal to any period in the Fifth Republic's history. This book explores the extent to which this represents outright change and shifts within a stable structure. Portrayals of French political culture point to incivisme, individualism and a distrust of organizations. The book focuses on three fundamental political issues such as 'politics', 'power' and 'justice', which appear in almost all political discussions and conflicts. It identifies different 'types' of state in political theory and looks at the major challenges to practical state sovereignty in the modern world. Discussing the concept of the nation in the United Kingdom, the book identifies both cultural and political aspects of nationhood. These include nation and state; race and nation; language and the nation; religion and national identity; government and nation; common historical and cultural ties; and a sense of 'nationhood'. Liberal democracy, defensive democracy and citizen democracy/republican democracy are explained. The book also analyses John Stuart Mill's and Isaiah Berlin's views on 'negative' and 'positive' freedom. Conservatism is one of the major intellectual and political strains of thought in Western culture. Liberalism has become the dominant ideology in the third millennium. Socialism sprang from the industrial revolution and the experience of the class that was its product, the working class. Events have made 'fascism' a term of political abuse rather than one of serious ideological analysis. Environmentalism and ecologism constitute one of the most recent ideological movements.

The (un)troubling overlaps in visual communication between Hungarian greens and far-right ecologists
Balša Lubarda

-leaning ideologies and politics. Even though a wide array of parties engages with environmental topics, from social democrats to pirate parties, it can no longer be argued that environmentalism is a valence-consensus issue (Mertig and Dunlap, 1995 ). Yet the intersection between the far right and environment is both historically and ideologically profound (Forchtner, 2019 ). This prompts an exploration into diverse ideal-types of ideological communication on the environment, such as eco-socialism or far-right ecologism (Lubarda, 2020a ). For instance, the latter consists of

in Visualising far-right environments
Abstract only
Gender and visual environmental communication by the extreme right in Cyprus
Miranda Christou

concepts both in nationalist ideologies and performances of hegemonic masculinities (Connell and Messerschmidt, 2005 ). The chapter begins by connecting environmental ideology to gender, both as a variable and at the level of symbolism (Ortner, 1972 ). This is followed by an introduction to ELAM and an account of how ELAM's approach to the environment relates to current manifestations of ‘far-right ecologism’ (Lubarda, 2020 ). The next section presents the methodology of categorising and analysing the 109 images followed by

in Visualising far-right environments
Towards a visual turn
Bernhard Forchtner

Both for pragmatic reasons and due to public usage, I largely speak of ‘environment’/‘environmental’, subsuming other notions such as ‘nature’ and ‘ecology’/‘ecological’ under this umbrella (see Radkau, 2014 ). See Dobson ( 1999 : 235f) for a widely shared differentiation between managerial environmentalism and radical ecologism. 2 As the nation remains the main point of reference for the far right, speaking of ethnonationalism is

in Visualising far-right environments
Ben Clift

’s internal hegemony (see below), were accompanied by changes in the PS’s electoral context, presenting some novel strategic challenges. Episode 1: ‘New politics’, new cleavage formation? In the later 1980s and early 1990s, support for political ecologism in France (the principal formations being Génération Ecologie (GE) and les Verts – the Greens) increased dramatically. After a 10 per cent showing in the 1989 European elections, the Greens polled 15 per cent of votes cast in the regional elections of 1992. The fact that one polling institution put ecologist support at 19

in The French party system
Vox’s visual rhetoric strategies online
Carmen Aguilera-Carnerero

green agenda by the left. Lubarda ( 2020 ) distinguishes eight ideological elements prevailing in what he calls far-right ecologism: naturalism, spirituality, mysticism, authority, organicism, autarky, nostalgia and Manichaeism. Vox's three main visual rhetorical environmental themes – the defence of the average man's (represented by farmers and cattle breeders) rights, the importance of symbols in constructing the Spanish identity and the party's ideological commitment illustrated by their political activities – speak mainly to nostalgia and

in Visualising far-right environments
Arctic fossil fuels, white masculinity and the neo-fascist visual politics of the Izborskii Club
Sonja Pietiläinen

, what separates the club's communication from ‘mainstream’ nationalism is the dream of territorial expansion and national rebirth that was also used to justify the utilisation of Arctic fossil fuels. Some scholars of the environmental politics of the far right conceptualise ‘far-right ecologism’ as a distinctive environmental view where ‘respect for everything “natural” arises from instinct qualities of nature’ (Lubarda, 2019 : 13). A similar line of argument is also presented by Forchtner ( 2019b ), who argues in the

in Visualising far-right environments
I was a pre-teen fanzine writer
Nicholas Bullen

remainder of the content consisted of personal writings on a range of topics, including consumerism and social control (Black Cross), animal rights and capitalism (Museum Farce), ecologism, religion and the conformity of fashion (Sine Nomine). This, in turn, was augmented by contact addresses for campaign organisations and placed alongside a small selection of reviews covering fanzines and cassette releases. 1 2 198Bore 1983 marked an endpoint, with the appearance of a single fanzine (Unreason, a polemical blend of personal texts and collages) heralding my withdrawal

in Ripped, torn and cut
Open Access (free)
Governmental power and authority in democratic ecological governance
Lennart J. Lundqvist

legitimately binding long-term commitments for society as a whole. At the same time, the spatial dimension calls for multi-level governance, involving several governmental levels as well as non-governmental actors (see Hirst 2000:22 ff.). This logically calls for a diffusion of state authority, upward and/or sideways to the international level as well as downward to regional and local governmental levels. The scale of such a problem as climate change necessitates a global approach; ‘ecologism in one country’ is certainly not a sustainable option. The variation in eco

in Sweden and ecological governance