Purity, adulteration and national
In 1860, Denis Moylan, the newly appointed Lord Mayor of Dublin, instigated
a campaign to clamp down on butchers who knowingly sold contaminated
meat. Moylan’s crusade garnered considerable support from the Irish Times – a
newspaper that, in subsequent years, tirelessly vilified butchers, warning on one
occasion that ‘the poor are plundered in every conceivable manner and to an
unconceivable degree’.1 The newspaper’s numerous editorials on the subject
portrayed Dublin’s poorest residents as daily exposed
Liverpool occupies a prominent position in the contemporary popular imagination. In spite of decades of economic decline, urban decay and a name associated by some with poverty and crime, the city's reputation is by no means a negative one. The book is a collection of essays that focuses on the strength of Liverpool's merchant marine, representing both informal and formal empire over centuries. It discusses the interracial relationships in 1950s and 1960s Liverpool to demonstrate that many African and Afro-Caribbean sailors (and others) married or had relationships with white women. Given existing deficiencies in the historiographies of both Liverpool and the British Empire, the book aims to reassess both Liverpool's role within the British imperial system and the impact on the port city of its colonial connections. Liverpool's success has often been attributed to, and marred by, its being the leader in the slave trade after 1750. Napoleonic Wars were a period of great turbulence and difficulty for the Liverpool commercial community. Liverpool is perceived as a diasporic city, however, its ambiguous nineteenth-century identity reflected the tensions of its complex migrant connections. An analysis of Liverpool's business connections with South America reveals its relative commercial decline and the notion of 'gentlemanly capitalism'. The African ethnology collection of National Museums Liverpool's (NML) ethnology collections are displayed in the 'World Cultures' gallery of the World Museum Liverpool, which opened in 2005. Liverpool is perhaps not exceptional, though its networks are notable and striking.
Goes By: Shifting Incomes and Inequality between and within Generations
( London : Intergenerational
Cornia , G.
A. ( 1987 ),
‘ EconomicDecline and Human Welfare in the First Half of the
1980s ’, in Cornia , G. A. ,
Jolly , R. and
F. (eds), Adjustment with a
Human Face: Volume 1 ( Oxford : Clarendon
Press ), pp. 11 – 47 .
Cross , J. and
A. ( 2009 )
‘ Anthropology at the Bottom of the Pyramid ’,
still had a vast military commitment
across the globe, with troops in Europe, the Middle East and Far East,
including Germany, the Mediterranean, Aden and the Persian Gulf.
Britain was providing military support for the Federation of Malaysia,
which had been formed in September 1963, and which was under
attack from the authoritarian leader of Indonesia, General Sukarno, in
a campaign of what he called ‘confrontation’. However, it was becoming increasingly apparent that Britain’s relative economicdecline
compared with other industrialised countries meant that it could
Growth amidst decline: Ireland’s
grassroots food growing
A rise in food growing outside the farm has occurred in tandem with Ireland’s
economicdecline as ordinary citizens seek to grow food in alternative spaces
such as allotments and community, school and home gardens. This change
in Irish society appears to be more than just a reaction to the collapse of the
Celtic Tiger. During the Celtic Tiger’s reign, such production was dominated
by an oppositional minority who sought alternative ways to source their food.
A ‘pivotal moment’?
In order to understand the development of Conservative policy we need to consider the context in which it took place. What did the 1970s feel like? What did they look like? What distinguished this from other decades? What were the prevailing concerns of the time? What social, political and economic trends were underway? How important was the wider context of the decade, its particular themes and its particular preoccupations?
To many this was a period of relative economicdecline and high inflation, of trade union
’s relative economicdecline; the
changing structure of British industry; new data about the incidence of
unofficial and unconstitutional strikes; the recourse to incomes policies
in order to secure wage restraint aiming to curb inflation and the additional
problems which accrued from these pay policies. In addition, the critical
attention which was increasingly being directed towards the conduct of
Comrades in conflict
the trade unions was reinforced by a landmark judicial decision in 1964,
which fuelled demands for a formal inquiry into the law pertaining to
In the early 1960s, the optimism that had punctuated the intellectual politics of the preceding decade began to dissipate. Rather than anticipating a future in which social harmony and economic efficiency would resolve political conflict, intellectuals and policy-makers became increasingly preoccupied with explaining, and identifying solutions to, Britain’s apparent social and economicdecline. This decline, as Jim Tomlinson and others have demonstrated, was not an objective historical fact but a political construct that was, to a large extent, invented. 1 Yet
and ideological changes in the international environment; ideological
pressure at home; local opposition, either from the rulers or from their
societies; and domestic political considerations. The existing
literature is divided as to which factors were the more important. The
prevailing view pivots around economic retrenchment, in the sense that
the long-term relative economicdecline had convinced the government by
impact on the ‘outside world’ but which
are, nevertheless, instrumental in bolstering or reinforcing a sense of
otherness or distinctiveness amongst Shetlanders themselves.
In the late twentieth century Shetland experienced an economic
and demographic resurgence which made it unlike many other parts
of Scotland, where economicdecline, incorporating the collapse of
traditional heavy industries and the crisis of community, was a more
common theme. The Scottish east coast has witnessed the gradual
decline and more recent collapse of the fishing industry. In the Highlands