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Robert Mason

welfare programmes that cost the Kingdom USD 265.2 billion in 2013 on top of big infrastructure projects (Dokoupil, 2014 ). The IMF also said that eroding foreign reserves were causing a repeated annual budget deficit, with revenues estimated to drop by about 55 per cent between 2013 and 2019 at a time of lower oil revenues and to only be able to fund six and a half months of spending in 2019. What actually occurred is that economic reforms quickened in 2019, which generated more revenue, but still the IMF anticipated that the budget deficit would reach 7 per cent of

in Oil and the political economy in the Middle East
How Can Humanitarian Analysis, Early Warning and Response Be Improved?
Aditya Sarkar
,
Benjamin J. Spatz
,
Alex de Waal
,
Christopher Newton
, and
Daniel Maxwell

cheap labour force, exploited by agrarian capitalists in Sudan ( Thomas, 2019 ), urban contractors in Somalia ( Jaspars and Majid, forthcoming 2022 ) and military recruiters everywhere. The displaced can also be a magnet to attract humanitarian aid (as in Somalia), allowing those who control access to the displaced populations to reap material rewards ( World Bank, 2021 : 114). (Lack of) Economic Reform and Macroeconomic Mismanagement

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Nazanin Zadeh-Cummings
and
Lauren Harris

increased their procurement capacities under sanctions ( Park and Walsh, 2016 ). This is demonstrative of the ‘double-edged’ sword of sanctions that appears in academic discourse. Other examples include the argument that the international sanctions regime restricts the DPRK’s ability to integrate into the world economy, but may also inhibit domestic economic reform ( Gray and Lee, 2017 ), and that while US sanctions have restricted DPRK economic growth, it is to the detriment of the North Korean people and their standard of living ( Kim, 2014 ). Scholarship has also

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Crisis, reform and recovery

The Asian financial crisis of 1997-98 shook the foundations of the global economy and what began as a localised currency crisis soon engulfed the entire Asian region. This book explores what went wrong and how did the Asian economies long considered 'miracles' respond, among other things. The combined effects of growing unemployment, rising inflation, and the absence of a meaningful social safety-net system, pushed large numbers of displaced workers and their families into poverty. Resolving Thailand's notorious non-performing loans problem will depend on the fortunes of the country's real economy, and on the success of Thai Asset Management Corporation (TAMC). Under International Monetary Fund's (IMF) oversight, the Indonesian government has also taken steps to deal with the massive debt problem. After Indonesian Debt Restructuring Agency's (INDRA) failure, the Indonesian government passed the Company Bankruptcy and Debt Restructuring and/or Rehabilitation Act to facilitate reorganization of illiquid, but financially viable companies. Economic reforms in Korea were started by Kim Dae-Jung. the partial convertibility of the Renminbi (RMB), not being heavy burdened with short-term debt liabilities, and rapid foreign trade explains China's remarkable immunity to the "Asian flu". The proposed sovereign debt restructuring mechanism (SDRM) (modeled on corporate bankruptcy law) would allow countries to seek legal protection from creditors that stand in the way of restructuring, and in exchange debtors would have to negotiate with their creditors in good faith.

From Communism to Pluralism

This book reassesses a defining historical, political and ideological moment in contemporary history: the 1989 revolutions in central and eastern Europe. It considers the origins, processes and outcomes of the collapse of communism in eastern Europe. The book argues that communism was not simply an 'unnatural Yoke' around the necks of East Europeans, but was a powerful, and not entirely negative, historical force capable of modernizing societies, cultures and economies. It focuses on the interplay between internal and external developments as opposed to an emphasis on Cold War geopolitical power struggles and the triumphalist rhetoric of how the 'freedom-loving' USA 'defeated' the 'totalitarian' Soviet Union. The book also approaches the East European revolutions from a variety of angles, emphasizing generational conflicts, socio-economic and domestic aspects, international features, the 'Gorbachev factor', and the role of peace movements or discourses on revolution. It analyses the peace movements in both parts of Germany during the 1980s from a perspective that transcends the ideological and geopolitical divides of the Cold War. The history of the East German peace movement has mostly been written from the perspective of German unification in 1989-1990. Many historians have read the history of the civil rights movement of 1989-1990 backwards in order to show its importance, or ignored it altogether to highlight the totalitarian character of the German Democratic Republic.

Zheng Yangwen

hat electrified the world; he was interested in what the capitalist world had to offer. This was the difference between the idealistic Mao and the pragmatic Deng, who seems to have been more in tune with life, whereas Mao seemed incapable of divorcing life from ideology and political campaigns. China established diplomatic relations with the United States as a result, opening a new page in Sino-American relations and post-Mao economic reform. A series of reforms was launched after Deng’s visit to the United Sates. In 1979, the Central Committee and State

in Ten Lessons in Modern Chinese History
Abstract only
Neil Collins
and
Andrew Cottey

was to re-establish China as an economically viable society and a great power, Deng Xiaoping’s key insight was that new economic policies need to be found to achieve this goal. The economic reforms instituted by Deng and his successors, however, themselves generated pressures for political change. The greater freedom both required by and resulting from market economic reforms gave the Chinese people space to express new demands and dissent. Market economic reforms also created new actors, in particular in the form of private business enterprises and businesspeople

in Understanding Chinese politics
Francesco Cavatorta

economic reforms to be undertaken, took the opportunity of the recession to legitimise them (Garon, 1994: 34). Thus, there is a strong link between the internationally driven crisis and the tentative liberal economic reforms initiated in the mid-1980s. In turn, the necessity to face the 75 76 the international dimension of the algerian transition c­ risis by reforming the system reinforced the influence of the international environment on the process of political transition through the indirect influence of neo-liberal economic ideals and through the entry on the

in The international dimension of the failed Algerian transition
A socio-economic perspective
Michal Pullmann

contention. Introduced originally in the Soviet Union in the mid-1980s, the reforms of perestroika unleashed a floodgate of criticism of ‘real existing socialism’ and subverted its ideological purity, while intending to preserve and perfect socialism.1 Perestroika was also officially adopted in Czechoslovakia and preceded the rapid collapse of the system. The main difference was that the Czechoslovak communists introduced perestroika-style economic reforms, but without glasnost (openness). That is, they aimed to imitate the Soviet attempt to reform the centrally planned

in The 1989 Revolutions in Central and Eastern Europe
Abstract only
The legacy of history
Neil Collins
and
Andrew Cottey

’ (with Premier Li Peng and Zhu Rongji). Chairman of CMC 1989 to 2004 Hu Jintao (‘Fourth generation’) 2004 CCP Secretary-general incumbent (retires 2012); Chairman of CMC 2004– Source: http://english.gov.cn/2007–10/22/content_923081.htm The final section of this chapter examines the period since the late 1970s, an era characterised by market oriented economic reforms which have produced sustained high levels of economic growth and moved the country far from the economic and social model developed after 1949. Despite these radical economic and social changes, at the

in Understanding Chinese politics