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Democratization is a major political phenomenon of the age and has been the focus of a burgeoning political science literature. This book considers democratization across a range of disciplines, from anthropology and economics, to sociology, law and area studies. The construction of democratization as a unit of study reflects the intellectual standpoint of the inquirer. The book highlights the use of normative argument to legitimize the exercise of power. From the 1950s to the 1980s, economic success enabled the authoritarian governments of South Korea and Taiwan to achieve a large measure of popular support despite the absence of democracy. The book outlines what a feminist framework might be and analyses feminist engagements with the theory and practice of democratization. It also shows how historians have contributed to the understanding of the processes of democratization. International Political Economy (IPE) has always had the potential to cut across the levels-of-analysis distinction. A legal perspective on democratization is presented by focusing on a tightly linked set of issues straddling the border between political and judicial power as they have arisen. Classic and contemporary sociological approaches to understanding democracy and democratization are highlighted, with particular attention being accorded to the post-1989 period. The book displays particularities within a common concern for institutional structures and their performance, ranging over the representation of women, electoral systems and constitutions (in Africa) and presidentialism (in Latin America). Both Europe and North America present in their different ways a kind of bridge between domestic and international dimensions of democratization.

Kieran Allen

nature of the project – to build up native capitalism by every means possible. The foreign firms that located in Ireland mainly used the country as a platform for export elsewhere and so they offered little threat to Irish industry. The grants and tax breaks used to attract them were also enjoyed by Irish capitalists – who actually received a higher amount per job created.10 The modest growth of Irish industry in this period combined with the influx of foreign investment allowed Fianna Fáil to revive its hegemonic position over workers because economic success appeared

in Are the Irish different?
Open Access (free)

examines coinage struck in the 1850s, featuring iconography of Lady Liberty, represented first in Greco-Roman form. A year later, the colonial coins were restruck to feature Lady Liberty framed as an ‘Indian princess’, culturally appropriating a feather headdress. Cordes traces how early coinage across settler America circulated colonial fantasies of bravery and superiority, ideas of American nationhood, myths of the American dream and economic success through enslavement. Yet the iconography on these coins masked brutal genocides, stolen lands, broken treaties and debts

in The entangled legacies of empire
Derek Fraser

form to a viable community. As Waterman concluded from the household survey conducted in 2001, The Leeds Jewish community is still robust and active … and comprises myriad voluntary associational activities, all of which contribute to the accumulation of social capital within the Jewish community. 15 The history of the Jewish community in Leeds is a story of social mobility and economic success. Much of that progress has been sustained by the educational achievements of successive generations. The noted educational

in Leeds and its Jewish Community
Chris Duke
Michael Osborne
, and
Bruce Wilson

continues to fuel a now-global economic machine. Curiously, what we see, partly in the name of consumer-citizen choice, is reduction of ­diversity and the loss of species and whole ecosystems on a scale unprecedented for many millennia.9 This is exacerbated by the continuing if slowing rise in world population, and the increasing economic success of now more populous world regions. Their rising aspirations require more energy, more and better food and other commodities. They aspire to surpass the living standards, and in the process the natural resource consumption, of

in A new imperative
Abstract only
Ulrike Ehret

1935 there were still 98,747 Eastern European Jews or 19.8% of the Jewish community in Germany. By that time the economic discrimination against Jews (which had set in as early as 1932 in Franconia) and the open persecution since Hitler’s nomination as German Chancellor in January 1933 had reduced the Jewish community by 11%.80 Many of them found refuge in Britain.81 The history of Jews both in Britain and in Germany is a story of economic success and social improvement. In the nineteenth century the Jewish community in Britain was divided into two distinct social

in Church, nation and race
Abstract only
Helen Thompson

is easier to see even where living standards are comparable. By the turn of the century, Japanese democracy had endured for fifty years, including through the economic meltdown of the 1990s. Yet if the absence of alternatives to democracy in Europe in good part explains why governments there were able to navigate through the difficulties created by financial liberalisation and American monetary power, the same explanation does not suffice here. In East Asia, as the political and economic success of the authoritarian regime in Singapore has exhibited, there are

in Might, right, prosperity and consent
Gary Murphy

, by the close of the twenty-eighth Dáil it could point to a mass of statistical evidence showing that it had presided over an economic boom. While both Fianna Fáil and the PDs would run as independent parties, it was clear that both would campaign on the government’s economic record. It was certainly a record that could easily be sold in an election campaign. The most startling indicator of the government’s economic success was the huge increase in Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Ireland’s economy as measured by real GDP grew at an annual average rate of 8.5 per cent

in Electoral competition in Ireland since 1987
Linda and Jim revisited
Jane Elliott
Jon Lawrence

work-rich and work-poor households, the disincentives to work embedded in the welfare system, and above all, the arbitrariness of economic success and failure in the context of rapid deindustrialisation and the liberalisation of labour markets. But the long, free-flowing interviews Pahl conducted over fourteen years do more than chronicle the hardships of ‘getting by’ in Thatcher’s Britain, they offer unusually rich insights into what it felt like to be at the sharp end of economic ‘restructuring’, including how their experiences shaped their identity and sense of

in Revisiting Divisions of Labour
Martine Pelletier

9780719075636_4_006.qxd 16/2/09 9:25 AM Page 98 6 ‘New articulations of Irishness and otherness’1 on the contemporary Irish stage Martine Pelletier Though the choice of 1990 as a watershed year demarcating ‘old’ Ireland from ‘new’, modern, Ireland may be a convenient simplification that ignores or plays down a slow, complex, ongoing process, it is nonetheless true to say that in recent years Ireland has undergone something of a revolution. Economic success, the so-called ‘Celtic Tiger’ phenomenon, and its attendant socio-political consequences, has given

in Irish literature since 1990