The well-being of Europe’s citizens depends less on individual consumption and more on their social consumption of essential goods and services – from water and retail banking to schools and care homes – in what we call the foundational economy. Individual consumption depends on market income, while foundational consumption depends on social infrastructure and delivery systems of networks and branches, which are neither created nor renewed automatically, even as incomes increase. This historically created foundational economy has been wrecked in the last generation by privatisation, outsourcing, franchising and the widespread penetration of opportunistic and predatory business models. The distinctive, primary role of public policy should therefore be to secure the supply of basic services for all citizens (not a quantum of economic growth and jobs). Reconstructing the foundational has to start with a vision of citizenship that identifies foundational entitlements as the conditions for dignified human development, and likewise has to depend on treating the business enterprises central to the foundational economy as juridical persons with claims to entitlements but also with responsibilities and duties. If the aim is citizen well-being and flourishing for the many not the few, then European politics at regional, national and EU level needs to be refocused on foundational consumption and securing universal minimum access and quality. If/when government is unresponsive, the impetus for change has to come from engaging citizens locally and regionally in actions which break with the top down politics of ‘vote for us and we will do this for you’.
7 The economy
In considering the economy from the point of view of securitisation the
underlying dilemma which is present throughout this book shifts a little.
In most chapters, because of the issues with which we are dealing, the
background theme is the trade-off between democracy and authoritarianism. Although because of the focus of our analysis we have not often
put it in quite these terms, what we are assessing on one level is the
balance between practices associated with the Soviet Union, and those
associated with a
Early French accounts of the Antilles reflect the transformations in
settlement patterns from initiatives with a strong military and commercial character, to more established patterns of plantation colonisation. A number of testimonies have also been left by participants
in the transportation of slaves across the Atlantic to the Americas.
These texts reflect significant displacements and societal changes.
They illustrate how human beings were introduced into new circuits
of exchange, and how African slaves were commoditised
This book critically examines the range of policies and programmes that attempt to manage economic activity that contributes to political violence. Beginning with an overview of over a dozen policies aimed at transforming these activities into economic relationships which support peace, not war, the book then offers a sustained critique of the reasons for limited success in this policy field. The inability of the range of international actors involved in this policy area, the Development-Security Industry (DSI), to bring about more peaceful political-economic relationships is shown to be a result of liberal biases, resulting conceptual lenses and operational tendencies within this industry. A detailed case study of responses to organised crime in Kosovo offers an in-depth exploration of these problems, but also highlights opportunities for policy innovation. This book offers a new framework for understanding both the problem of economic activity that accompanies and sometimes facilitates violence and programmes aimed at managing these forms of economic activity. Summaries of key arguments and frameworks, found within each chapter, provide accessible templates for both students and aid practitioners seeking to understand war economies and policy reactions in a range of other contexts. It also offers insight into how to alter and improve policy responses in other cases. As such, the book is accessible to a range of readers, including students interested in peace, conflict and international development as well as policy makers and practitioners seeking new ways of understanding war economies and improving responses to them.
Social financing, social economy: Chantier
de l’Économie Sociale Trust, Montreal
Jean-Marc Fontan and Denis Bussières
For several years, managers of social economy enterprises have been expressing
the need to have access to financial products other than traditional grants and
loans, while at the same time asking how best to maintain their business capital
over the long term. They deemed that new products which kept their social
mission in mind would be needed. At the request of the Chantier de l’Économie
Sociale Trust, a study on these issues was
In a city on the south coast of England one evening, just after the 2016 referendum on the European Union, Diane talks about the economy at the offices where she works as a cleaner. She is on the top floor in a corridor overlooking the housing estate where she grew up and where her mother still lives. She is in her early thirties, married with four children. She is composed and, at times, reticent. She describes how just before the 2008 financial crisis her husband was earning high wages as a painter and decorator so they decided to buy a house. A few months
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Transforming a war economy: learning from
the case of Kosovo
AVING BUILT up a preliminary framework in the previous chapter
through which war economies and transformation policies can be
assessed, the case of Kosovo and transformation policies implemented
by the DSI following the conflict there will be analysed, not simply to test the
framework but to build and improve upon it. As a starting point, it is
important to note that the conflict in Kosovo has primarily been analysed in
4147 Inglis–Are the Irish different_BB_Layout 1 29/07/2014 09:26 Page 34
Just another bubble economy?
Q: What is the difference between Iceland and Ireland?
A: One letter and six months.
That joke looked remarkably accurate after the Celtic ‘Tiger’ turned into a ‘pig’ (or
PIIG) overnight at the end of 2008.1 The immediate story, as in many other parts of
the world after the bankruptcy of Lehmann Brothers in the United States, was a
massive banking crisis and a state bailout that would prove untenable within
months. Irish gross domestic product
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War economy transformation: current
policy options and issues
as a primary cause of a war, as one of several competing
motivations to engage in violence, or simply an outcome of the
supposed lawlessness that is characteristic of conflict, it is increasingly recognised that economic motivations create serious barriers to the resolution of
war and the consolidation of peace. Not only a problem in terms of the
causation, prolongation or intensity of conflict (Ballentine, 2003), these war
the banking system in the UK is lent to firms engaged in the production of goods or services (i.e. to industries that employ people).
Figure 4 (overleaf) indicates the discrepancy between GDP and money supply following financial deregulation in the mid-1980s. This has two important implications regarding the vision of the economy as a ‘pot of money’ or household budget. First, the efficient market hypothesis is a myth because the financial sector and