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Open Access (free)
Neil McNaughton

Education 4 ➤ The background to education after World War II ➤ The principles of the 1944 Education Act ➤ The change to comprehensive schooling ➤ Analysis of Conservative policy in the 1980s ➤ The importance of the 1988 Education Act ➤ The effects of the National Curriculum, testing and league tables ➤ New Labour policies on education Until World War II the involvement of the state in British education has been variable and, at times, has even seemed reluctant. Being fundamentally a liberal culture, there has been a fear that state intervention might

in Understanding British and European political issues
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Bernadette C. Hayes and Ian McAllister

How educational systems operate in divided societies is an increasingly important question for conflict resolution. Traditionally seen as an institution which reflects social differences, more recent views of education are that it has the capacity to generate significant social change, by identifying sources of conflict and by developing strategies to ameliorate them. As a result

in Conflict to peace
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Public good or finishing school?
Robert Chernomas, Ian Hudson, and Mark Hudson

Introduction Since you are presumably actually reading this book, and not merely scanning its pages before settling it on your shelves, nestled between Ayn Rand's Fountainhead and Dan Brown's DaVinci Code , to impress visitors, it is probably safe to assume that literacy, and even numeracy, are not overwhelming obstacles in your daily life. Imagine if that were not the case. Imagine not being able to read street signs, drug prescriptions or even a ballot. A National Center for Education Statistics adult

in Neoliberal lives
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Philip Begley

A remote utopian ideal Education was one of the most important and most divisive issues in British politics during the 1970s. It may also have been the one area of policy in which there was such a coherent, persistent and persuasive campaign to bring about a fundamental re-thinking in Britain. If the 1960s had been dominated by progressive conceptions of bringing about a fairer and more open society, then by the following decade these had been overthrown by reactionary concerns about simply improving standards and getting value for money. 1

in The making of Thatcherism
How childhood changed in mid-twentieth-century English schools
Author: Laura Tisdall

A Progressive Education? argues that concepts of both childhood and adolescence were transformed in English and Welsh primary and secondary modern schools between 1918 and 1979, and that, by putting childhood at the centre of the history of education, we can challenge the stories we tell about how and why schooling itself changed. A ‘progressive’ or ‘child-centred’ education began to emerge theoretically in the United States and Western Europe from the late nineteenth century, claiming to rewrite curriculums to suit children and young people’s needs, wants and abilities. Existing work suggests that progressivism both rose and retreated in Britain in the 1960s and 1970s, when a right-wing backlash against permissive teaching and the deschooling movement led to the imposition of central state control over education. However, the child-centred pedagogies that became mainstream in English and Welsh schools after 1945 rested on a fundamentally different vision of childhood. Unlike utopian deschoolers, post-war child-centred educationalists assumed that the achievements of mass democracy and the welfare state must be carefully preserved. Children needed to be socialised by adult educators to ensure that they acquired the necessary physical, intellectual, social and emotional maturity to become full citizens. Teachers, far from enthusiastically advocating child-centred methods, perceived them as a profound challenge to their authority in the classroom, and implemented them partially and reluctantly. Child-centred education, in alliance with developmental psychology, thus promoted a much more restrictive and pessimistic image of childhood and youth as it came to dominate mainstream schooling after the Second World War.

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Caitriona Clear

4883 Social Change PT bjl.qxd 13/6/07 11:07 Page 42 3 Education Introduction The French word éducation refers to all aspects of a person’s upbringing, including the formal acquisition of knowledge. The world of schooling in the nineteenth century cannot be understood without appreciating that going to school made up only part of children’ s ‘education’, and whether this was a small or a large part (or no part at all) depended largely on family priorities. Almost all children (except those in rich families) were trained to help around the house, business

in Social change and everyday life in Ireland 1850–1922
Community engagement and lifelong learning
Author: Peter Mayo

In this broad sweep, Mayo explores dominant European discourses of higher education, in the contexts of different globalisations and neoliberalism, and examines its extension to a specific region. It explores alternatives in thinking and practice including those at the grassroots, also providing a situationally grounded project of university–community engagement. Signposts for further directions for higher education lifelong learning, with a social justice purpose, are provided.

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Policy and practice in Northern Ireland
Jennifer Hamilton, Fiona Bloomer, and Michael Potter

4 Traveller education: policy and practice in Northern Ireland Jennifer Hamilton, Fiona Bloomer and Michael Potter This chapter addresses the ways in which social exclusion, ­discrimination and disadvantage are experienced by the Traveller community in Northern Ireland with respect specifically to education. Drawing on empirical research, it evaluates the adequacy and effectiveness of primary-level education from the perspective of Travellers, and assesses the broader policy context for Traveller educational provision in Northern Ireland, providing some insights

in Tolerance and diversity in Ireland, North and South
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Promise and paralysis
Adrian O’Connor

2 National education: promise and paralysis In April 1762, when the Parlement of Paris ordered the Society of Jesus to relinquish control of the thirty-eight collèges it administered within the Parlement’s jurisdiction, it set off a tremendous debate about the purpose, personnel, and politics of French education. When, four months later, the Parlement expelled the Jesuits altogether and, two years after that, Louis XV expelled the order from all of France, it became apparent that the debate over education would become national in scope and that it would require

in In pursuit of politics
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Carolyn Steedman

100 Part I: History 4 An education The purpose of all educational institutions, public or private, is utilitarian and can never be anything else; their duty is to prepare young persons for that station in life to which it shall please society to call them. W. H. Auden, ‘The Poet as Professor’, Prose Volume IV. 1956–1962, Edward Mendelson (ed.), 2010, pp. 317–319; Observer, 5 February 1961.1     … Savoury and Newcomen and Watt And all those names that I was told to get up In history preparation and forgot W. H. Auden, ‘Letter to Lord Byron’, 1936. Under Clio

in Poetry for historians