This book offers a critical survey of religious change and its causes in eighteenth-century Europe, and constitutes a challenge to the accepted views in traditional Enlightenment studies. Focusing on Enlightenment Italy, France and England, it illustrates how the canonical view of eighteenth-century religious change has in reality been constructed upon scant evidence and assumption, in particular the idea that the thought of the enlightened led to modernity. For, despite a lack of evidence, one of the fundamental assumptions of Enlightenment studies has been the assertion that there was a vibrant Deist movement which formed the “intellectual solvent” of the eighteenth century. The central claim of this book is that the immense ideological appeal of the traditional birth-of-modernity myth has meant that the actual lack of Deists has been glossed over, and a quite misleading historical view has become entrenched.
The Open Graves, Open Minds project discussed in this book relates the undead in literature, art and other media to questions concerning gender, technology, consumption and social change. The story of vampires, since their discovery in eighteenth-century Europe, is one of transformations and interbreedings of genre, which mediate shifts in ways of knowing and doubting. It is marked by metamorphoses of the vampire itself, from monstrous to sympathetic, but always fascinatingly Other. Certain tropes, such as optical figures, and particularly that of reflection, recur throughout, calling attention to the preoccupation with epistemology in vampire narratives. The book focuses on various aspects of these themes as the story unfolds to the present day. It shows how the persona of Lord Byron became an effective vehicle for the vampire of fiction as a transformed Gothic mode, and grapples with the figure of the non-reflecting vampire who casts no shadow, moving deftly between Dracula and Wilde's Dorian Gray and the 'vampire painting' and installations of the contemporary artist David Reed. The book gives a luminous account of early vampire cinema as a 'Kingdom of shadows', and explores the undead at the interface, where knowing becomes problematic: 'unsettlement'. The book also unearths the folklore roots of vampire fiction and offers a glimpse of how contemporary writers adapt the perennial figure.
Communities of readers
John Toland and print and
OLAND did more than simply read and write books: he was a key agent in
disseminating ideas around the elite salons of early eighteenth-centuryEurope. In the last chapter Toland’s involvement in a world of learning and
the library was explored. One of the intentions was to underscore the social
dimensions of this world of learning: gaining entrance to the inner sanctum
of a man’s library was a means of getting inside his head. In locating Toland in
this milieu we
Cohn, that metropolis
and colony were brought into a unitary epistemological field. In
introducing this idea, he has argued elegantly that the
eighteenth-centuryEuropean state established its authority by codifying
and controlling representation of the relationship between the past and
the present. 3 The
accumulation of vast amounts of information on finance, trade, health
political authority. In his example we can see how ideas
worked in the period. Far from being detached intellectual exercises, the
evidence of the composition, circulation and reception of his texts shows that
ideas could have serious instrumental purchase in political life. One man and
his pen – with the right support in powerful places – really could make a
Toland’s affinity with men like Eugene illustrates the role his ideas played
in the elite circles of early eighteenth-centuryEuropean politics. It also indicates how receptive political and intellectual
The experience of the sick in the eighteenth century
flesh and the mind.
Throughout eighteenth-centuryEurope, epistolary consultations
constitute an important archive in which to explore the experience of any illness in the Enlightenment. An educated person might
write to a physician, usually a famous one, to get relief if they
were suffering from multiple and long-lasting ailments that required
the judgement of an expert and had consulted many other healers
without success. Samuel Tissot, a famous physician practising in
Lausanne (Switzerland) during the second half of the eighteenth
century, received more than 1
Medicine was transformed in the eighteenth century. Aligning the trajectories of intellectual and material wealth, this book uncovers how medicine acquired a new materialism as well as new materials in the context of global commerce and warfare. It studies the expansion of medicine as it acquired new materials and methods in an age of discovery and shows how eighteenth-century therapeutics encapsulates the intellectual and material resources of conquest. Bringing together a wide range of sources, the book argues that the intellectual developments in European medicine were inextricably linked to histories of conquest, colonisation and the establishment of colonial institutions. Medicine in the eighteenth-century colonies was shaped by the two main products of European mercantilism: minerals and spices. Forts and hospitals were often established as the first signs of British settlement in enemy territories, like the one in Navy Island. The shifting fortunes on the Coromandel Coast over the eighteenth century saw the decline of traditional ports like Masulipatnam and the emergence of Madras as the centre of British trade. The book also explores the emergence of materia medica and medical botany at confluence of the intellectual, spiritual and material quests. Three different forms of medical knowledge acquired by the British in the colonies: plants (columba roots and Swietenia febrifuga), natural objects and indigenous medical preparations (Tanjore pills). The book examines the texts, plants, minerals, colonial hospitals, dispensatories and the works of surgeons, missionaries and travellers to demonstrate that these were shaped by the material constitution of eighteenth century European colonialism.
its underlying conception of
RATTANSI 9781526105875 PRINT.indd 19
The dark side of modernity
odernity, than is often realised. But there is one fundamental
difference that prevents any assimilation of the ‘modernity’ at play
in the two discourses: while modernisation celebrated modernity,
the new perspectives problematised modernity. Far from seeing in
modernity the basic contours of the good society, postmodernists
sought to debunk its claims. And in this critique, the Enlightenment
movement that flourished in eighteenth-centuryEurope
German philosopher Jürgen Habermas has written extensively on the European Union.
This is the only in-depth account of his project. Published now in a second
edition to coincide with the celebration of his ninetieth birthday, a new
preface considers Habermas’s writings on the eurozone and refugee crises,
populism and Brexit, and the presidency of Emmanuel Macron. Placing an
emphasis on the conception of the EU that informs Habermas’s political
prescriptions, the book is divided into two main parts. The first considers the
unfolding of 'social modernity' at the level of the EU. Among the
subjects covered are Habermas's concept of juridification, the
latter's affinities with integration theories such as neofunctionalism, and
the application of Habermas's democratic theory to the EU. The second part
addresses 'cultural modernity' in Europe – 'Europessimism'
is argued to be a subset of the broader cultural pessimism that assailed the
project of modernity in the late twentieth century, and with renewed intensity
in the years since 9/11. Interdisciplinary in approach, this book engages
with European/EU studies, critical theory, political theory, international
relations, intellectual history, comparative literature, and philosophy. Concise
and clearly written, it will be of interest to students, scholars and
professionals with an interest in these disciplines, as well as to a broader
readership concerned with the future of Europe
Review, 111:3 (June 2006) 692–716,
and Barbara H. Rosenwein, ‘Modernity: a problematic category in the history
of emotions’, History and Theory, 53 (February 2014), 69–78.
54 Bloch, Les Rois thaumaturges, 55, 60.
55 Valensise, ‘Le Sacre du roi’, 548.
56 William Doyle, review of Monarchy and Religion: The Transformation of
Royal Culture in Eighteenth-CenturyEurope (review no. 616), www.history.
ac.uk/reviews/review/616. Accessed 10 December 2018.
57 Michael Schaich, Author’s response to review, available at same location as
58 Barbara Rosenwein