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Britain and Australia 1900 to the present
Author: Neville Kirk

Explanations of working-class politics in Australia and Britain have traditionally been heavily rooted in domestic 'bread and butter', socio-economic factors, including the much-debated issue of social class. 'Traditional' and 'revisionist' accounts have greatly advanced our knowledge and understanding of labour movements in general and labour politics in particular. This book offers a pathbreaking comparative and trans-national study of the neglected influences of nation, empire and race. The study is about the development and electoral fortunes of the Australian Labor Party (ALP) and the British Labour Party (BLP) from their formative years of the 1900s to the elections of 2010. Based upon extensive primary and secondary source-based research in Britain and Australia over several years, the book makes a new and original contribution to the fields of labour, imperial and 'British world' history. It offers the challenging conclusion that the forces of nation, empire and race exerted much greater influence upon Labour politics in both countries than suggested by 'traditionalists' and 'revisionists' alike. Labour sought a more democratic, open and just society, but, unlike the ALP, it was not a serious contender for political and social power. In both countries, the importance attached to the politics of loyalism is partly related to questions of place and space. In both Australia and Britain the essential strength of the emergent Labour parties was rooted in the trade unions. The book also presents three core arguments concerning the influences of nation, empire, race and class upon Labour's electoral performance.

Abstract only
Alan Convery

the Welsh Conservatives appear to have staged a recovery since 1997, the Scottish Conservatives have been much less successful. It has also become accepted wisdom in the Scottish Conservative Party that it has The territorial Conservative Party 2 Table 1.1  Conservative Party electoral performance in Scotland and Wales, 1999–2011 Election Members of the Scottish Parliament Members of the Welsh Assembly 1999 2003 2007 2011 18 18 17 15 9 11 12 14 Source: Rallings and Thrasher (2009); National Assembly for Wales (2011); Scottish Parliament (2013). lessons to

in The territorial Conservative Party
Neville Kirk

wider focus upon a combination of political, economic, social and cultural factors is adopted. The electoral record Labour’s record of electoral performance between 1900 and the present day may usefully be broken down into four chronological periods: from 1900 to the time of World War One; from 1917 in Australia and 1918 in Britain to 1939; from the era of World War Two to the late 1970s; and from the latter to the present. Between 1901 and 2006 the BLP enjoyed national

in Labour and the politics of Empire
Abstract only
David J. Bailey, Jean-Michel De Waele, Fabien Escalona and Mathieu Vieira

remains contested normatively and strategically. The contributors to the present volume each contribute to these ongoing debates, especially in their empirical assessment of social democratic parties’ response thus far to the crisis, and the implications this has for social democratic and broader left strategy for the future. Social democracy during the global economic crisis In terms of evaluating the social democratic response to the GEC, there are perhaps three (interrelated) dimensions that demand our attention: electoral performance, programmatic change, and the

in European social democracy during the global economic crisis
Liam Weeks

3 Independents’ electoral history Introduction Independents have been a constant feature of the Irish electoral landscape. They have maintained a continuous presence in the Dáil right back to the 1922 elections, the first in the Irish Free State.1 This is in contrast to their electoral performance in other established democracies, where independent candidates struggle to win votes, let alone seats. At the same time, independents’ success rates in Ireland have not been consistent, as sometimes (particularly in the 1960s and 1970s) their representation dipped to

in Independents in Irish party democracy
Abstract only
Neville Kirk

1964 and 1970. The 1970s saw victories for both the Conservatives and Labour. I explain Labour’s poor overall electoral performance in Australia and its more mixed record in Britain in terms of a combination of ‘traditional’, ‘revisionist’, neglected and new factors. These include trends in living standards, economic management, internal party unity and disunity, progressive nationalism and loyalty to nation and Commonwealth. I maintain that Labour in both countries fared best at the polls when it successfully

in Labour and the politics of Empire
Open Access (free)
Mark Garnett and Philip Lynch

, parliamentary party and voluntary party in the Hague period. Chapters 6–10 focus on Conservative policy and ideology; Chapter 11 examines the party’s electoral performance after 1997. Three Commentary pieces by leading Conservatives then draw differing conclusions about the 1997–2001 period, before the editors offer some conclusions. It is a traditional article of faith for conservatives that the past can provide valuable lessons. In his chapter, Stuart Ball provides a comparative analysis of previous periods when the Conservative Party was in opposition. His discussion leads

in The Conservatives in Crisis
Liam Weeks

independent presence. The importance of the institutional setting indicates the rational nature to independents’ emergence in Irish party democracy. Because there is a particular set of rules in place, it caters for the expression of a political culture that is conducive to independents. The aim of this chapter is to examine this interaction of institutional features of the voting system and independents’ electoral performance, not only in 172 Independents and the electoral system Ireland, but also on a comparative level. This dimension is necessary because there is not

in Independents in Irish party democracy
The impact of austerity politics in France
Antonella Seddone and Julien Navarro

dynamics. The third section will focus on the electoral performance of the French left during the crisis period, using an analysis based on economic voting theory. The fourth section investigates developments on the ideological right–left scale and on EU issues, working with data from the Manifesto project and analysing the manifestos from the 2017 elections. United we stand, divided we fall The French left is composed of a myriad of political parties. Its great ideological heterogeneity very often results in divisiveness and a

in The European left and the financial crisis
Open Access (free)
Party system change and electoral prospects
Gilles Ivaldi

traditional bipolar format of French politics. It will then move on to analyse the historical and political factors underlying the split, the electoral performances of the two parties that emerged from this critical breakdown and the key features of party ideology within the extreme, right pole. Third, it will address the electoral prospects of the FN and MNR in the light of their results in the presidential and legislative elections of spring 2002. Extreme-right politics and party system change in the mid-1990s A glance at the results of elections over the past fifteen

in The French party system