Opportunity or exile?
Author: Marjory Harper

Emigration from Scotland has always been very high. However, emigration from Scotland between the wars surpassed all records; more people emigrated than were born, leading to an overall population decline. This book examines emigration in the years between the two world wars of the twentieth century. Although personal persuasion remained the key factor in stimulating emigration, professional and semi-professional agents also played a vital part in generating and directing the exodus between the wars. Throughout and beyond the nineteenth century Scottish emigration was, in the public mind and public print, largely synonymous with an unwilling exodus from the highlands and islands. The book investigates the extent to which attitudes towards state-aided colonization from the highlands in the 1920s were shaped by the earlier experiences of highlanders and governments alike. It lays particular emphasis on changing and continuing perceptions of overseas settlement, the influence of agents and disparities between expectations and experiences. The book presents a survey of the exodus from lowland Scotland's fishing, farming and urbanindustrial communities that evaluates the validity of negative claims about the emigrants' motives vis-a-vis the well-publicized inducements offered through both official and informal channels. It scrutinizes the emigrants' expectations and experiences of continuity and change against the backdrop of over a century of large-scale emigration and, more specifically, of new initiatives spawned by the Empire Settlement Act. Barnardo's Homes was the first organization to resume migration work after the war, and the Canadian government supervision was extended from poor-law children to all unaccompanied juvenile migrants.

Marjory Harper

The controversy that had always been a concomitant of emigration clearly did not cease with the passage of the Empire Settlement Act of 1922, which sharpened the debate from party political, ideological and practical perspectives. In a Scottish context, the youthful exodus from urban-industrial areas – which accounted for much of the country’s inter-war emigration – also became one of the sharpest rocks on which formal schemes of empire settlement foundered, while simultaneously exposing the paradoxical attitudes

in Emigration from Scotland between the wars
Marjory Harper

Establishing the tradition In the course of the nineteenth century emigration was woven indelibly into the fabric of Scottish life and lore. Between 1825 and the outbreak of the First World War at least 1,841,534 emigrants left Scotland for non-European destinations, constituting an exodus which had profound psychological, as well as demographic, implications. 1 In particular, there developed a historiography of enforced diaspora, fuelled by polemicists, poets and novelists, which portrayed the movement

in Emigration from Scotland between the wars
T. M. Devine

12 A CENTURY OF EMIGRATION Emigration has been a central feature of Highland history over the last three centuries and, for much of that period, the scale of outward movement was significantly greater than that from other areas of Scotland. Its origins were rooted in the dramatic and controversial changes in the region. Clearances, commercialisation, demographic pressures, famine, economic collapse and landlordism all had an impact on the emigration process though there is much debate among scholars about the precise and relative significance of these various

in Clanship to crofters’ war
Caitriona Clear

4883 Social Change PT bjl.qxd 1111 2 3 4 15 6 7 8 9 10 1 112 1113 4 5 6 7 8 9 20 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40111 13/6/07 11:07 Page 57 4 Emigration and migration They went across the fields at six o’clock this morning, they are in America long ago. (Tipperary boy, 1890s, asked about his sisters1) How many and where? The alarming figures have been so often repeated that we are in danger of taking them for granted: in 1890 there were 3 million Irish people living outside of Ireland and 40 per cent of all Irish-bybirth people in the world were

in Social change and everyday life in Ireland 1850–1922
Laura Peters

amply provided for; but that the whole proceeding was illegal. (PP, 1851, XL, 417, my italics) THESE CONCLUSIONS, drawn in 1851 by Richard Hall, the Poor Law Inspector conducting the inquiry into the emigration of children to Bermuda by the Board of Guardians of Marylebone in St Paneras parish, marked the end of one of the first

in Orphan texts
Marjory Harper

The undoubted importance of the highlands and islands in the long history of mass emigration from Scotland has tended to obscure the equally significant – if less dramatic – movement from other parts of the country. Recent scholarship has begun to highlight the neglected contribution made by lowland emigrants to the nineteenth-century exodus 1 and provides an essential foundation for any study of inter-war emigration – which was primarily a lowland phenomenon, most prominent in the towns and cities of the central

in Emigration from Scotland between the wars
Marjory Harper

Throughout and beyond the nineteenth century Scottish emigration was, in the public mind and public print, largely synonymous with an unwilling exodus from the highlands and islands. The reshaping of the region’s demographic, social and economic map during a century and a half of estate reorganization and clearance fuelled a negative, pejorative and enduring historiography of enforced diaspora, which distorted the diversity of the movement, obscured the significant outflow from other areas and suffused Scottish

in Emigration from Scotland between the wars
Marjory Harper

Many formal emigration schemes between the wars addressed the specific needs of a generation of disillusioned or adventurous urban youths. By harnessing post-war legislation to Victorian and Edwardian concepts and practices, private and public enterprises together tried to tackle unemployment and poor prospects, creating one of the most significant, but also one of the most controversial, manifestations of assisted emigration in the entire history of the movement. Inter-war philanthropists could build on a

in Emigration from Scotland between the wars
Eric Richards

16 British emigration and the Malthus model Spanning the transition The life of Robert Malthus (1766–1834) spanned the decades in Britain of the rapid transition towards mass international migration. This became manifest only towards the end of his life. He was keenly aware of the extraordinary reproductive feats of the American colonists and the potential of new lands in the colonies. He was also well-informed about the substantial migrations from particular regions of the British Isles at the end of the old century. But Malthus was not much engaged with the

in The genesis of international mass migration