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From the autonomous house to self-sufficient territories
Author: Fanny Lopez

The energy autonomy project defies a century-old system: that of the industrial model of large networks which, on the scale of cities or vast territories, comprised the dominant production mode of many utilities – water, sewage, energy – marginalizing decentralized solutions. Today, with the energy transition a vital issue, this unified large technical system is tottering. A new imaginary dimension of the infrastructure is being built within which the world of architecture has taken hold of the energy question, imagining autonomous inhabitable machines, self-sufficient cities, eco-infrastructures and micro-grids. Right from the beginning, these disconnection protagonists have fueled two ambitions: being emancipated from the hold of the large infrastructures and, through a utilities system incorporated into buildings, guaranteeing minimum comfort in water, electricity and heating. Among the figureheads are forgotten personalities and others who are famous, such as John Adolphus Etzler with his autonomous mechanical system of 1841, and Thomas Edison and his electrically autonomous house of 1912. The energy autonomy movement, however, did not reach maturity internationally until after the 1973 oil crisis. Propelled by American counterculture, autonomy spread geographically and became institutionalized, moving from the housing unit to the city and the territory. Alexander Pike’s autonomous house or Jeanne-Marie and Georges Alexandroff’s self-sufficient city attest to the power of this trend, which combined technical virtuosity and the economic, political, social and environmental project. All of them heralded today’s discussions, which this work sheds light on through its historical approach.

This book analyses the use of the past and the production of heritage through architectural design in the developmental context of Iran. It is the first of its kind to utilize a multidisciplinary approach in probing the complex relationship between architecture, development, and heritage. It uses established theoretical concepts including notions of globalism, nostalgia, tradition, and authenticity to show that development is a major cause of historical transformations in places such as Iran and its effects must be seen in relation to global political and historical exchanges as well as local specificities. Iran is a pertinent example as it has endured radical cultural and political shifts in the past five decades. Scholars of heritage and architecture will find the cross-disciplinary aspects of the book useful. The premise of the book is that transposed into other contexts, development, as a globalizing project originating in the West, instigates renewed forms of historical consciousness and imaginations of the past. This is particularly evident in architecture where, through design processes, the past produces forms of architectural heritage. But such historic consciousness cannot be reduced to political ideology, while politics is always in the background. The book shows this through chapters focusing on theoretical context, international exchanges made in architectural congresses in the 1970s, housing as the vehicle for everyday heritage, and symbolic public architecture intended to reflect monumental time. The book is written in accessible language to benefit academic researchers and graduate students in the fields of heritage, architecture, and Iranian and Middle Eastern studies.

Space, power and governance in mid-twentieth century British cities

Reconstructing modernity assesses the character of approaches to rebuilding British cities during the decades after the Second World War. It explores the strategies of spatial governance that sought to restructure society and looks at the cast of characters who shaped these processes. It challenges traditional views of urban modernism as moderate and humanist, shedding new light on the importance of the immediate post-war for the trajectory of urban renewal in the twentieth century. The book shows how local corporations and town planners in Manchester and Hull attempted to create order and functionality through the remaking of their decrepit Victorian cities. It looks at the motivations of national and local governments in the post-war rebuilding process and explores why and how they attempted the schemes they did. What emerges is a picture of local corporations, planners and city engineers as radical reshapers of the urban environment, not through the production of grand examples of architectural modernism, but in mundane attempts to zone cities, produce greener housing estates, control advertising or regulate air quality. Their ambition to control and shape the space of their cities was an attempt to produce urban environments that might be both more orderly and functional, but also held the potential to shape society.

The formation of a collective imagination
Ali Mozaffari and Nigel Westbrook

annihilation, an intensifying apprehension of environmental collapse prompted a turn in architectural education and research away from development-led technology towards what became known as ‘environmental design’. The shift was international, beginning at the University of California, Berkeley,3 and by the end of the 1970s, many undergraduate design degrees in the US, Canada, and Australia had adopted this title. Environmental design was multidisciplinary, introducing perspectives of sociology, anthropology, and psychology to architecture. Stemming from this

Stephen McCusker

, the list of architectural co-­operatives seems to be ever changing and the published list does not refer to other co-operatives such as the Cave Co-operative, Leeds Environmental Design Associates (LEDA) and Loop Systems. Referring to Edward Cullinan Architects (recently renamed Cullinan Studio), Awan, Schneider and Till suggest their structure has become the accepted model for operating as a co-operative within the architectural profession. Cullinan Studio is well regarded within the profession, with roots dating back to the 1960s and a plethora of awards and peer

in Mainstreaming co-operation
Helena Chance

office and outside, much as they did in the early twentieth century.54 At the same time, architects and landscape architects are competing to win one of those prestigious certifications for sustainable buildings; the Building Research Establishment Environmental Assessment Methodology (BREEAM) or the Leadership for Energy in Environmental Design (LEED) assessments. From factory gardens to ‘connected gardens’205 Companies stand to gain from healthy and satisfied employees, and a more dynamic social environment, and employees can benefit equally by an improvement to the

in The factory in a garden
Fanny Lopez

in 1956 and founded the Centre for Land Use and Built Form Studies in 1967, which took his name and became The Martin Centre for Architectural and Urban Studies. 12 An architect of Malaysian origin with a doctorate in urban ecology from Cambridge University, Ken Yeang was the cofounder of T. R. Hamzh & Yeang, an office specializing in the environmental design of tall buildings, notably in tropical milieus. He is Professor of Urban Ecology at Cambridge University and a consultant for Max Fordham LLP. 13 Pike, “Product analysis 5: Heart units,” pp. 206

in Dreams of disconnection
Rowland Atkinson and Sarah Blandy

environmental criminology and its policy offshoot, situational crime prevention, which has been adopted by governments in the UK and the USA (Kitchen and Schneider, 2001; ACPO Crime Prevention Initiative, 2004).Vulnerable targets are identified by assessing the residential environment through the eyes of the criminal, and are then made secure by ‘target hardening’, such as fitting extra locks and fences. The alternative approach, crime prevention through environmental design was originally developed in Australia and is closely linked to psychological 40 Domestic fortress

in Domestic fortress
Sandra Streed

geothermal heating and cooling, was one of the first buildings in Wisconsin to achieve Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design Gold certification. Recent additions to the campus are the student-built Strawbale Demonstration Energy Lab, which operates off the grid, and the McLean Environmental Living and Learning Center (MELLC). The campus also features two wind towers, four hot-water arrays, five photovoltaic arrays (including one installed by students at the president’s house), and geothermal heating and cooling in the Ponzio Campus Center. Nationally, Northland is

in University engagement and environmental sustainability
Abstract only
The international congresses of architecture in Iran and the transnational search for identity
Ali Mozaffari and Nigel Westbrook

Design: Journal of the Islamic Environmental Design Research Centre, 1 (1996), pp. 94–7. Farhad and Bakhtiar, Interaction of Tradition and Technology, p. 54. On Quaroni, see M. Tafuri, History of Italian Architecture, 1944–1985, trans. J. Levine (Cambridge, MA, and London: MIT Press, 1989), pp. 62–5. Farhad and Bakhtiar, Interaction of Tradition and Technology, p. 60. A. van Eyck, ‘Is Architecture Going to Reconcile Basic Values?’, in O. Newman (ed.), ClAM ‘59 in Otterloo (Stuttgart: Kramer Verlag, 1961), pp. 26–35. O.M. Ungers, Die Thematisierung der Architektur