Social democracy has made a political comeback in recent years, especially under the influence of the ‘Third Way’. Not everyone is convinced, however, that ‘Third Way’ social democracy is the best means of reviving the Left's project. This book considers this dissent and offers an alternative approach. Bringing together a range of social and political theories, it engages with some contemporary debates regarding the present direction and future of the Left. Drawing upon egalitarian, feminist and environmental ideas, the book proposes that the social democratic tradition can be renewed but only if the dominance of conservative ideas is challenged more effectively. It explores a number of issues with this aim in mind, including justice, the state, democracy, new technologies, future generations and the advances in genetics.
Lending, investing and guaranteeing sustainable development
Admitting that environmentalideas have been reconciled with
economic concerns in this way does not mean that the Bank and
IFC have completely solved how this works in practice. Indeed,
their operations and activities continue to evolve but weaknesses
remain. For some this constitutes IO ‘hypocrisy’ (Weaver 2008)
where IOs attempt to reconcile the competing member states’
demands but remain impeded by their own organisational
culture. The World Bank, for example, often does not meet its
own standards for sustainability as demonstrated in its QAG and
IEG evaluations, while
’, in Sister Outsider: Essays and Speeches. pp. 53–59
Berkeley : Crossing Press .
Macauley , D.
( 2010 ). Elemental Philosophy: Earth, Air, Fire, and Water as EnvironmentalIdeas . Albany, NY : State University of New York Press .
O’Connor , E.
( 2005 ). ‘ Embodied knowledge: The experience of meaning and the struggle towards proficiency in glassblowing
environmentalideas might be antithetical to its understanding of
development, thus threatening its identity as a leader in development lending (Wade 1997: 624). The Bank initially dismissed this
challenge, sidelining environmentalideas through a ‘business as
usual’ approach, but the prominence of non-state actors continued to grow (Rich 1994: ch 5). As detailed below, TEANs would
increasingly influence the Bank through direct and indirect socialisation. Ongoing TEAN scrutiny led to a shift from the Bank’s
‘business as usual’ approach to one of ‘do no harm’ in the late
, on the other hand,
suggests that the contradiction between exploitation and
preservation, or, more generally, between progress and order, lies
at the core of the modern understanding of development. 2 Environmental
historians and historians of science, when tracing the roots of our
environmentalideas, have in fact found many continuances between
colonial and late
Japan started around the time of the Earth Summit
in 1992. The 1992 Five-Year Plan for Livelihood Great Power –
Sharing a Better Quality of Life Around the Globe (Economic
Planning Agency, 1992) argued for the need to establish harmony
between a demand-led economy and the environment, and the
need to pursue a high quality of life rather than a high quantity of
production. The Economic and Social Plan for Structural Reform
agreed on by the Cabinet in December 1995 incorporated a good
number of environmentalideas, including the creation of a sustainable and zero
-values-promoting party, Unity. The tendency for all political parties to have active social democratic members is indirectly recognised also by the former president of LBAS, Pēteris Krīgers, stating that parties tend to forget the socially responsible promises that they made before the elections (Tvnet, 2011 ).
If the case of the Latvian left can be seen as unique, then also the situation with the political advocates of environmentalideas is also rather interesting. The Latvian Green Party is as economically left as every other liberal Latvian party that has been
Local environment and global climate change through the German far-right lens
been well chronicled, far-right concerns for the natural environment can be found in the early nineteenth century in Germany. Here, Romantic, anti-French and anti-Enlightenment elements were present, leading, for example, Ernst Moritz Arndt and Wilhelm Heinrich Riehl to imagine völkisch connections between ‘land and people’, something which led the twenty-first century ecofascist group Greenline Front to proclaim that Arndt and Riehl are the ‘fathers of the völkish environmentalism’ (GF, n.d. ). At the turn of the twentieth century, environmentalideas were
affinity towards the protection of nature (to protect the Volk ) featured environment-friendly elements, National Socialism largely subordinated these to productivist/war efforts. Extensive environmental management in support of political aims and claims to regenerate ‘the people’ were also visible in southern European fascisms, while fascist forces in the United Kingdom proposed environmentalideas around healthy environments and farming which, ultimately, found their way into the post-war environmental movement.
During the second half of the
in nineteenth-century southern Africa. Scots had a striking influence
upon environmentalideas and the emergence of the sciences relating to
forestry, agriculture, climate, hydrology and animal husbandry. Debates
connected with drought, aridity, deforestation and dramatic climate
swings had wider global significance, and these were in turn influenced
by the Cape experience.
Moreover, Scots were highly