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Professionalization and post-politics in the time of responsible golf
Brad Millington
Brian Wilson

and compliant way. In the final section of this chapter, however, we also provide a more critical assessment of the professionalization strategies described herein. We reflect especially on professionalization’s ideological function at this time: in positioning golf industry representatives as leaders in the environmental movement, professionalization tactics have served to elevate golf’s version of environmentalism to a ‘leading’ (i.e. hegemonic) position as well. We employ the aforementioned

in The greening of golf
Math Noortmann
Luke D. Graham

120 The internationalisation of environmental law The recognition of the existence of a general cross-border environmental problem has led to an internationalisation of environmental law. International environmental law is characterised by: an increasing recognition of environmental law principles at the

in The basics of international law
Water scarcity, the 1980s’ Palestinian uprising and implications for peace
Jeffrey Sosland

D ID WATER SCARCITY precipitate the 1980s’ intifada – the violent conflict between the Palestinians and the Israelis? This difficult question is the type of issue with which environmental security researchers grapple. Obviously, violent conflict results from multiple factors, such as ethnic tension, failed deterrence, and misperception. The environmental

in Redefining security in the Middle East
Kevin Harrison
Tony Boyd

Environmentalism and ecologism constitute one of the most recent ideological movements. Though the terms are often used interchangeably, it is more useful to regard ecologism as a philosophy that believes in a thorough-going root and branch transformation of society, whereas environmentalism believes that dangers to the environment can be tackled within the existing political

in Understanding political ideas and movements
Actors, institutional adaptation and implementation
Bernadette Connaughton

The EU of course cannot really force member states to alter their domestic institutional architecture. It just keeps churning out relatively good environmental laws and hopes that some of these will eventually take hold and have an impact. (Flynn, 2007 : 27) Introduction The implementation of EU environmental directives within and across policy areas requires a well

in The implementation of environmental policy in Ireland
Bernadette Connaughton

humble beginnings EU environmental strategy has evolved into an autonomous policy area as opposed to a mere appendix to economic integration (Krämer, 2006 ; Hildebrand, 1993 ). It is now impossible to understand the environmental policy of any member state without taking into account an understanding of EU environmental policy. This chapter presents an overview of how environmental policy has advanced to become one of the most developed areas of EU policy making, making it a most likely case for Europeanisation. It is argued that the progress of EU environmental

in The implementation of environmental policy in Ireland
Bernadette Connaughton

5306ST New Patterns-C/lb.qxd 3/9/09 16:45 Page 122 7 The politics of environmental policy Bernadette Connaughton Introduction Ireland’s environmental policy is largely shaped by a generally low level of environmental awareness and the dominance of economic priorities on the national policy agenda. Yet Ireland’s environmental performance is regarded as relatively strong (EPA, 2005) and illustrates evidence of progress in terms of policy and institutional framework (OECD, 2000). In contrast to this are the increasing pressures to which Ireland’s physical

in Europeanisation and new patterns of governance in Ireland
A new history of knowledge

This book tells the story of how modern environmentalism emerged in postwar Sweden. It shows that the ‘environmental turn’ in Sweden occurred as early as the autumn of 1967 and that natural scientists led the way. The most influential was the chemist Hans Palmstierna, who was both an active Social Democrat and a regular contributor to the nation’s leading morning paper. Thus, he had a unique platform from which to exert influence. Drawing on his rich and previously untapped personal archive, the book explores how popular environmental engagement developed in Sweden. The book also highlights the journalist Barbro Soller, who in the mid-1960s became Sweden’s – and indeed one of the world’s – first environmental journalists. Moreover, it demonstrates how the pioneering historian Birgitta Odén, in collaboration with the Swedish National Defence Research Institute, sought to launch an interdisciplinary research programme based in the humanities and the social sciences as early as 1967–1968. An important conclusion of the book is that environmentalism emerged in Swedish society before there was an actual environmental movement. However, from 1969 onwards new social movements began to alter the dynamics. Hence, by the time the United Nations arranged the Stockholm Conference on the Human Environment in June 1972, environmental knowledge had become a source of conflict between rival interests. The environmental turn in postwar Sweden is the first full-length study to emerge from the Lund Centre for the History of Knowledge (LUCK), and demonstrates how its specific take on the history of knowledge enhances historical scholarship.

Jenny Pickerill

2 Negotiating the tensions of techno-environmentalism This is the classic dilemma for activists – the tools we use for the job of opposition may not be the ones we wish to become dependant on in a free society. Just like money – we need to raise it and use it now, but it would be a great relief when it is finally abolished in the future. (Dave Morris, McSpotlight) Technology has historically been viewed with scepticism by environmentalists. This scepticism can also manifest itself as a tension between environmentalists who advocate differing approaches to, and

in Cyberprotest
Sandra Streed

6 Sustainable local food systems and environmental sustainability Sandra Streed We begin with a simple truth. How we eat determines how the earth is used. (Wendell Berry, 1990) B erry’s statement provokes questions about the connections and relationships among food, our earth, and our environment. Where does food come from? Where and how is it grown? How is it harvested, packaged, delivered to us? What is its value and what is its cost? Is it a sustainable system? What food systems are in place? What is a sustainable food system? What is sustainability? What

in University engagement and environmental sustainability