Twenty-first-century Scottish play-acting draws depth and energy from a European and Western tradition of dreaming Scottish dreams, and this tradition dates back to at least the late eighteenth century, to the beginnings of European Romanticism. This book explores how contemporary celebrations of Scotland build upon earlier Scottish fantasies. The Scottish dreamscape is one of several pre-modern counter-worlds which have been approached through imitation in the past. The book examines the 'Scotland' that is on the play-actors' minds. The Scottish dreamscape was formed in an eighteenth- and nineteenth-century process now best known as Highlandism. It was then that Scotland became associated with the aesthetics and supposed characteristics of its Highland periphery. The book also explores the Scottish dreamscape's spread via the channels of the British Empire and American popular culture. It identifies five key carriers which helped to disseminate the Scottish aesthetic across the world, namely epic poetry, the Highland regiments, music hall entertainment, Hollywood films, and romance novels. The book further focuses on fieldwork conducted in 2009 and 2010. It sheds some light on the different forms of Scottish play-acting, on musicians, athletes, commemorators, and historical re-enactors. The pipers and athletes do not imitate the past; they perform in what they hope are old but living Scottish traditions. Commemorators and historical re-enactors have a different aim. They seek to recreate the past in the present. Finally, the book identifies some of the main reasons for the Scottish dreamscape's special resonance in northern and western Europe.
or an idea.
A metaphysical trend, equally difficult to conceptualise due to the
different variations it presented (Bagué Quílez 2006: 72–73), also gained
strength during the 1990s. Under the all-encompassing label of poesía
metafísica readers could find epicpoetry, Neo-surrealism, hermetic trends
or poesía del silencio, all of them greatly different in terms of aesthetics.
Authors such as Jorge Riechmann, Álvaro Valverde, Andrés Sánchez
Robayna, Juan Carlos Mestre or Juan Carlos Suñén have all been associated with it. This metaphysical poetry, even though it did
him deadly cloyd:
For that wilde Bore, the which him once annoyd,
She firmely hath emprisoned for ay,
That her sweet loue his malice mote auoyd,
In a strong rocky Caue, which is they say,
Hewen vnderneath that Mount, that none him losen may.
The vision of the Garden of Adonis is a climactic one in the first
instalment of Spenser’s epic – though remarkable for its transcendence of the political goals we associate with the motivating visions
of the Aeneid and epics in the Virgilian mould.33 But the Garden of
Adonis is not restricted to Spenser’s epicpoetry. It
The challenge of the sublime argues that the unprecedented visual inventiveness of the Romantic period in Britain could be seen as a response to theories of the sublime, more specifically to Edmund Burke’s Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful (1757). While it is widely accepted that the Enquiry contributed to shaping the thematics of terror that became fashionable in British art from the 1770s, this book contends that its influence was of even greater consequence, paradoxically because of Burke’s conviction that the visual arts were incapable of conveying the sublime. His argument that the sublime was beyond the reach of painting, because of the mimetic nature of visual representation, directly or indirectly incited visual artists to explore not just new themes, but also new compositional strategies and even new or undeveloped pictorial and graphic media, such as the panorama, book illustrations and capricci. More significantly, it began to call into question mimetic representational models, causing artists to reflect about the presentation of the unpresentable and the inadequacy of their endeavours, and thus drawing attention to the process of artistic production itself, rather than the finished artwork. By revisiting the links between eighteenth-century aesthetic theory and visual practices, The challenge of the sublime establishes new interdisciplinary connections which address researchers in the fields of art history, cultural studies and aesthetics.
enacted through ritualized social practices that are
themselves notably traditional in character: religious ceremonies,
ritual dance, recitations of epicpoetry. In such cases, tradition and
communication are fused together: a single performance serves
both to articulate and to transmit significant knowledge of symbolic
figures and moments in a group’s collective past, and to sustain
the members of that group in their sense of being members of a
community that is constituted and held together by patterns of
HISTORY AND MEMORY
device so awkwardly used by Shakespeare in
Macbeth , 4.3 that the scene is often cut). Spenser’s
triple temptings are complicated by allusion to all the great
temptations of epicpoetry and by subtle ironic paradox in the
temptations by Mammon (2.7) and by Acrasia (2.12). In striking contrast
to Spenser’s objective and immensely intellectualized allegory of
temptation is the riveting passional power and
Gerusalemme liberata and the early development of opera in England
audience. The extract and translation from Boileau’s
tenth satire, first printed in 1693, which, like Juvenal’s sixth
satire, ‘is writ by way of Letter to a Friend, to advise him not
to marry’, focuses directly on the dangers of seeing and
listening to Lully’s ‘modern Tragedy in musick’,
particularly those late operas based on episodes from sixteenth-century
Charron , Pierre . Of
Wisdome . Trans. Samson
Lennard . London : Edward
Blount and Witt Aspley , 1612 ?.
Clark , John . A History of EpicPoetry
(post-Virgilian) . Edinburgh : Oliver and Boyd ,
Cogan , Thomas . The Haven of
Health . London
, Boccaccio, and Chaucer, with Original Poems , in ‘Of Dramatic Poesy’ and Other Critical Essays , ed. George Watson, 2 vols (London: J.M. Dent & Sons, 1962), 2.270–1.
9 Dryden, ‘Discourses on Satire and on EpicPoetry’ in ‘Of Dramatic Poesy’ and Other Critical Essays , 2.76.
10 Michelle O’Callaghan, ‘Spenser’s Literary Influence’, in McCabe (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Edmund Spenser , 664–83. On Spenser’s influence in the eighteenth century, see R.C. Frushell, Edmund Spenser in the Early Eighteenth Century
, erases and blurs
Halfway through the Aeneid , Virgil calls not on
Calliope, the muse of epicpoetry, as might have been expected, but on
Erato, the muse of lyric and erotic poetry, as if suggesting the
interlacing of the two strains in his poem. 26 More specifically, it has been
argued that Statius’s blending of elegiac and epic voices in the