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Playing Scotsmen in mainland Europe

Twenty-first-century Scottish play-acting draws depth and energy from a European and Western tradition of dreaming Scottish dreams, and this tradition dates back to at least the late eighteenth century, to the beginnings of European Romanticism. This book explores how contemporary celebrations of Scotland build upon earlier Scottish fantasies. The Scottish dreamscape is one of several pre-modern counter-worlds which have been approached through imitation in the past. The book examines the 'Scotland' that is on the play-actors' minds. The Scottish dreamscape was formed in an eighteenth- and nineteenth-century process now best known as Highlandism. It was then that Scotland became associated with the aesthetics and supposed characteristics of its Highland periphery. The book also explores the Scottish dreamscape's spread via the channels of the British Empire and American popular culture. It identifies five key carriers which helped to disseminate the Scottish aesthetic across the world, namely epic poetry, the Highland regiments, music hall entertainment, Hollywood films, and romance novels. The book further focuses on fieldwork conducted in 2009 and 2010. It sheds some light on the different forms of Scottish play-acting, on musicians, athletes, commemorators, and historical re-enactors. The pipers and athletes do not imitate the past; they perform in what they hope are old but living Scottish traditions. Commemorators and historical re-enactors have a different aim. They seek to recreate the past in the present. Finally, the book identifies some of the main reasons for the Scottish dreamscape's special resonance in northern and western Europe.

Diana Cullell

or an idea. A metaphysical trend, equally difficult to conceptualise due to the different variations it presented (Bagué Quílez 2006: 72–73), also gained strength during the 1990s. Under the all-encompassing label of poesía metafísica readers could find epic poetry, Neo-surrealism, hermetic trends or poesía del silencio, all of them greatly different in terms of aesthetics. Authors such as Jorge Riechmann, Álvaro Valverde, Andrés Sánchez Robayna, Juan Carlos Mestre or Juan Carlos Suñén have all been associated with it. This metaphysical poetry, even though it did

in Spanish contemporary poetry
Pastoral vocation in ‘Astrophel’

him deadly cloyd: For that wilde Bore, the which him once annoyd, She firmely hath emprisoned for ay, That her sweet loue his malice mote auoyd, In a strong rocky Caue, which is they say, Hewen vnderneath that Mount, that none him losen may. The vision of the Garden of Adonis is a climactic one in the first instalment of Spenser’s epic – though remarkable for its transcendence of the political goals we associate with the motivating visions of the Aeneid and epics in the Virgilian mould.33 But the Garden of Adonis is not restricted to Spenser’s epic poetry. It

in Spenser and Virgil
From Burke’s Philosophical Enquiry to British Romantic art

The challenge of the sublime argues that the unprecedented visual inventiveness of the Romantic period in Britain could be seen as a response to theories of the sublime, more specifically to Edmund Burke’s Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful (1757). While it is widely accepted that the Enquiry contributed to shaping the thematics of terror that became fashionable in British art from the 1770s, this book contends that its influence was of even greater consequence, paradoxically because of Burke’s conviction that the visual arts were incapable of conveying the sublime. His argument that the sublime was beyond the reach of painting, because of the mimetic nature of visual representation, directly or indirectly incited visual artists to explore not just new themes, but also new compositional strategies and even new or undeveloped pictorial and graphic media, such as the panorama, book illustrations and capricci. More significantly, it began to call into question mimetic representational models, causing artists to reflect about the presentation of the unpresentable and the inadequacy of their endeavours, and thus drawing attention to the process of artistic production itself, rather than the finished artwork. By revisiting the links between eighteenth-century aesthetic theory and visual practices, The challenge of the sublime establishes new interdisciplinary connections which address researchers in the fields of art history, cultural studies and aesthetics.

enacted through ritualized social practices that are themselves notably traditional in character: religious ceremonies, ritual dance, recitations of epic poetry. In such cases, tradition and communication are fused together: a single performance serves both to articulate and to transmit significant knowledge of symbolic figures and moments in a group’s collective past, and to sustain the members of that group in their sense of being members of a community that is constituted and held together by patterns of traditional practice. 182 HISTORY AND MEMORY Media of

in History and memory
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device so awkwardly used by Shakespeare in Macbeth , 4.3 that the scene is often cut). Spenser’s triple temptings are complicated by allusion to all the great temptations of epic poetry and by subtle ironic paradox in the temptations by Mammon (2.7) and by Acrasia (2.12). In striking contrast to Spenser’s objective and immensely intellectualized allegory of temptation is the riveting passional power and

in Renaissance psychologies
Gerusalemme liberata and the early development of opera in England

audience. The extract and translation from Boileau’s tenth satire, first printed in 1693, which, like Juvenal’s sixth satire, ‘is writ by way of Letter to a Friend, to advise him not to marry’, focuses directly on the dangers of seeing and listening to Lully’s ‘modern Tragedy in musick’, particularly those late operas based on episodes from sixteenth-century Italian epic poetry

in Tasso’s art and afterlives
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Appropriating identity?

guise of black women, such as Alice Walker, Lubaina Himid, Dorothea Smartt, and others who posed for her. In the series, called Zabat, ‘conventionally ­imaged in the history of Western art as white women, they are here portrayed by Black ­women writers, artists, musicians and strategists’.6 In Sulter’s own guise as ­Calliope, the Muse of epic poetry, Sulter becomes Calliope and also Jeanne Duval, the poet whose talent was negated by Charles Baudelaire. In the narrative a­ ccompanying the image of Calliope, Sulter imagines Jeanne Duval pondering ‘that if you are Black

in Writing otherwise

to prose narratives in the vernacular, to epic poetry and, finally, to prose romances, each retelling allying its story to the protocols and the authority of other narratives (historical, mythical or biblical) already established in that format. There is a sense that each text strives to fashion credibility for Arthur within a sophisticated understanding of its discursive realm and that it needs to

in Cultural identities and the aesthetics of Britishness
Elisabeth Bronfen and Beate Neumeier

–206 . Charron , Pierre . Of Wisdome . Trans. Samson Lennard . London : Edward Blount and Witt Aspley , 1612 ?. Clark , John . A History of Epic Poetry (post-Virgilian) . Edinburgh : Oliver and Boyd , 1900 . Cogan , Thomas . The Haven of Health . London

in Gothic Renaissance