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Lachlan McIver
Maria Guevara
, and
Gabriel Alcoba

burden of illness and deaths as a consequence of the policies and political decisions made in relation to the COVID-19 pandemic. In our view, these should be considered epidemics or, more accurately, syndemics – the clustering and interactions of two or more diseases or health conditions and socio-environmental factors – of neglect ( Fronteira et al. , 2021 ). The first category is infectious diseases that were already considered ‘neglected’ before SARS-CoV-2 appeared. The World Health Organization

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
What Lessons Can Be Drawn from Case Studies in France, the United States and Madagascar?
Hugo Carnell

pandemic was not brought under control until 1960 ( Casey et al. , 2021 : 5–6). The mass general improvement in living standards and health services which has taken place throughout the twentieth century has strongly reduced both the prevalence of plague epidemics and mortality rates after infection ( Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2020a ). However, it is estimated that several hundred plague cases, and a small number of deaths, continue

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
A Focus on Community Engagement
Frédéric Le Marcis
Luisa Enria
Sharon Abramowitz
Almudena-Mari Saez
, and
Sylvain Landry B. Faye

Introduction During the 2014 West African Ebola epidemic, an estimated US$ 10 billion was spent to contain the disease in the region and globally. The response brought together multilateral agencies, bilateral partnerships, private enterprises and foundations, local governments and communities. Social mobilisation efforts were pivotal components of the response architecture ( Gillespie et al. , 2016 ; Laverack and Manoncourt, 2015 ; Oxfam International, 2015

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
The CDC’s mission to Cold War East Pakistan, 1958
Paul Greenough

1 The uneasy politics of epidemic aid: the CDC's mission to Cold War East Pakistan, 1958 Paul Greenough Epidemic outbreaks, political struggle, civil society response Historians warn against narratives in which actors are spared the dilemmas of chance and choice. No doubt prolepsis, anachronism and teleology should be avoided, but I find it difficult to tell a story

in The politics of vaccination
Laurinda Abreu

9 Epidemics, quarantine and state control in Portugal, 1750–1805 Laurinda Abreu Introduction On 15 May 1756, some two months after reports had arrived of an outbreak of plague in Algiers and just a few days after his own appointment as Secretary of State for Home Affairs, the most important government post in Portugal, Sebastião José de Carvalho e Melo, the future Marquis of Pombal, ordered Dom João de Lencastre, Colonel of the Naval Regiment, to proceed immediately to the fort of Paço d’Arcos (on the northern shore of the mouth of the Tagus, west of Lisbon

in Mediterranean Quarantines, 1750–1914
Maryinez Lyons

Congo is intimately linked to the special campaign to fight epidemic sleeping sickness early this century. That campaign formed the basis both for a public health programme and for the creation of a medical service, since it was, as in many African colonies, the first real effort made by the Europeans to deal with the health of Africans. Following the British discovery in 1901 of a major sleeping sickness

in Imperial medicine and indigenous societies
Bonnie Evans

publish studies with around 60 per 10,000. In 2008, a Japanese study then went out on a limb with a rate of 181.1 per 10,000, verging on 2 per cent. 83 Autism has since been reported to have grown in such proportions that it has become common in popular literature to talk of an autism ‘epidemic’. 84 This is somewhat ironic because Wing’s autism, the second autism, is hugely

in The metamorphosis of autism
Mathilde Hackmann

7 The cholera epidemic of 1892 and its impact on modernising public health and nursing in Hamburg Mathilde Hackmann Introduction ‘We are glad to send nurses to Hamburg, to help colleagues on the intensive care units caring for seriously ill patients’:  This statement was given by nurse director Edgar Reisch from the university hospital in Heidelberg on 8 June 2011 after the nurse director of the university hospital in Hamburg had asked for help.1 In May 2011 northern Germany experienced an enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) epidemic. Approximately ninety

in Histories of nursing practice
Positioning, Politics and Pertinence
Natalie Roberts

Introduction The Ebola epidemic that occurred in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo, primarily Nord Kivu, between 2018 and 2020 was the first major outbreak of the disease since West Africa 2013–16. Dramatic biomedical progress was made before and during the Kivu outbreak, including the rapid development of effective tests, treatments, vaccines and care interventions. Response efforts were marked by an extraordinarily large budget dispersed

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Alan Kidd
Terry Wyke
Bulletin of the John Rylands Library