Roman Catholic women's congregations are an enigma of nineteenth century social history. Over 10,000 women, establishing and managing significant Catholic educational, health care and social welfare institutions in England and Wales, have virtually disappeared from history. In nineteenth-century England, representations of women religious were ambiguous and contested from both within and without the convent. This book places women religious in the centre of nineteenth-century social history and reveals how religious activism shaped the identity of Catholic women religious. It is devoted to evolution of religious life and the early monastic life of the women. Catholic women were not pushed into becoming women religious. On the basis of their available options, they chose a path that best suited their personal, spiritual, economic and vocational needs. The postulancy and novitiate period formed a rite of passage that tested the vocation of each aspirant. The book explores the religious activism of women religious through their missionary identity and professional identity. The labour of these women was linked to their role as evangelisers. The book deals with the development of a congregation's corporate identity which brought together a disparate group of women under the banner of religious life. It looks specifically at class and ethnicity and the women who entered religious life, and identifies the source of authority for the congregation and the individual sister.
-dominated genre such as
the heritage film is now accessible to female directors.
More important perhaps is the emergence of filmmakers coming from outside the
traditional film circles, whose social and ethnicbackground contrast with their elders’.
Thus, the release in 1995 of the first film made by the beurette Zaïda Ghorab-Volta, 5 Souviens-toi de moi, brought a much
needed feminine element to what is now called ‘beur cinema’ and in which the absence of female
protagonists was, until recently, a recurrent feature. The success of Y
(Stockwell, chapter 6 ) especially, the origins and ethnicbackgrounds of serving policemen came to determine the effectiveness
with which they were able to carry out their duties, and set limits upon
their reliability as agents of colonial control. Whether supervising
traffic or controlling crowds at a political rally, once nationalist
politics were in the air life for every locally-recruited colonial
beyond his enormous contribution to
Irish history. His manuscript collection reveals a broad cultural curiosity
that was by no means confined to a scholarly elite. On the contrary, it
shows that members of multiple religious, social and ethnicbackgrounds
were eager to engage with manuscripts and books, whether related to
matters of national or international interest. Viewed in this context, it is
not unreasonable to consider Dublin as a Renaissance city of literature
with Ware at its centre. The very diversity of his network reveals that seventeenth-century Dublin
has described the maritime cultures of Guangdong and Fujian, cultures in which the borderlines between legal and illegal were flexible and the state was ignored or seen as a a nuisance or an enemy.
These provinces are isolated from the mainland of China by a mountain range. On the coastline there are, apart from a few larger ports such as Canton, many inlets, canals, islands, and natural harbours. The people living here had, for a large part, different ethnicbackgrounds from the ruling Han Chinese: they were
its focus at the supply side of the cannabis market. Nevertheless, more and more traders and smugglers of various nationalities and ethnicbackgrounds observed and took their chance to enter the cannabis market. While the supply side of the market came to be dominated by entrepreneurs with a criminal background, idealism did not disappear completely. The influence of the Sixties counterculture was paramount in the development of extensive Dutch indoor cultivation of marihuana, the so-called nederwiet, although criminal entrepreneurs quickly entered this cultivation
group of users of Dutch and other ethnicbackgrounds in the country.
Chinese heroin supply by air was extended, while criminal anarchy manifested in increasing rivalry and armed violence between Chinese groups. In this fragmented situation Turkish and Kurdish crime families took over dominance of the heroin trade after 1980. These groups connected opium production in Afghanistan with heroin manufacture in Turkey and consumption in the Netherlands and elsewhere. They made use of the geographical and historical position of Turkey as a transit hub for
Debating Tudor policy in Ireland: The ‘reform’ treatises
The introduction provides a general overview of the ‘reform’ treatises as a body of sources. The fact that there are approximately six-hundred of these documents is noted. The authors of the documents are examined with specific reference to their ethnic background and status within Irish officialdom. The different forms in which treatises were written and the major themes are then overviewed. Finally, issues such as intertextuality and how writers borrowed from one another are looked at.
As imperial political authority was increasingly challenged, sometimes with violence, locally recruited police forces became the front-line guardians of alien law and order. This book presents a study that looks at the problems facing the imperial police forces during the acute political dislocations following decolonization in the British Empire. It examines the role and functions of the colonial police forces during the process of British decolonisation and the transfer of powers in eight colonial territories. The book emphasises that the British adopted a 'colonial' solution to their problems in policing insurgency in Ireland. The book illustrates how the recruitment of Turkish Cypriot policemen to maintain public order against Greek Cypriot insurgents worsened the political situation confronting the British and ultimately compromised the constitutional settlement for the transfer powers. In Cyprus and Malaya, the origins and ethnic backgrounds of serving policemen determined the effectiveness which enabled them to carry out their duties. In 1914, the Royal Irish Constabulary (RIC) of Ireland was the instrument of a government committed to 'Home Rule' or national autonomy for Ireland. As an agency of state coercion and intelligence-gathering, the police were vital to Britain's attempts to hold on to power in India, especially against the Indian National Congress during the agitational movements of the 1920s and 1930s. In April 1926, the Palestine police force was formally established. The shape of a rapidly rising rate of urban crime laid the major challenge confronting the Kenya Police.
When members of that oft-maligned institution, the Anglican Church – the 'Tory Party at prayer' – encountered the far-flung settler empire, they found it a strange and intimidating place. Anglicanism's conservative credentials seemed to have little place in developing colonies; its established status, secure in England, would crumble in Ireland and was destined never to be adopted in the 'White Dominions'. By 1850, however, a global ‘Anglican Communion’ was taking shape. This book explains why Anglican clergymen started to feel at home in the empire. Between 1790 and 1860 the Church of England put in place structures that enabled it to sustain a common institutional structure and common set of beliefs across a rapidly-expanding ‘British world’. Though Church expansion was far from being a regulated and coordinated affair, the book argues that churchmen did find ways to accommodate Anglicans of different ethnic backgrounds and party attachments in a single broad-based ‘national’ colonial Church. The book details the array of institutions, voluntary societies and inter-colonial networks that furnished the men and money that facilitated Church expansion; it also sheds light on how this institutional context contributed to the formation of colonial Churches with distinctive features and identities. The colonial Church that is presented in this book will be of interest to more than just scholars and students of religious and Church history. The book shows how the colonial Church played a vital role in the formation of political publics and ethnic communities in a settler empire that was being remoulded by the advent of mass migration, democracy and the separation of Church and state.