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Editor: Tom Inglis

The Irish mind has enabled the Irish to balance and accommodate imagination and intellect, emotion and reason, poetry and science. The notion of cultural difference is not just an Irish story, but a story of nations and ethnic groups all over the world. The story of modernity revolves around people coming to see and understand themselves as belonging to nations. Although there were other European nations that made Catholicism a keystone of national difference, there were many factors that made the Irish project different. The idea of creating a society that had a collective vision and commitment without being socialist became an ideal of the Catholic Church during the latter half of the twentieth century. The Church did, nevertheless, have a profound influence on Irish society and culture. The extent to which the Catholic Church shaped and influenced Irish politics has been the subject of much research and debate. The power of the Catholic Church in politics stemmed from the power it developed in the modernisation of Irish society and, in particular, the controlling of sexuality, marriage and fertility. During the first half of the twentieth century, the Irish developed a particular aversion to marriage. For many nations and ethnic groups, what binds people together is that they speak the same language. It may well be that for generations many Irish people identified the Irish language, music and sport as an inhibitor in embracing a less insular and more urbane, cosmopolitan disposition.

Marie-Luce Desgrandchamps, Lasse Heerten, Arua Oko Omaka, Kevin O'Sullivan, and Bertrand Taithe

little more about my work and how the history of the Biafra war still affects Nigeria and the world. Bertrand: Can I just pick up a little bit on this Arua, because your work is very good at pointing out what Biafra or Biafran meant. In particular, you point out that within Biafra there was not a simple monolithic Igbo regime and that there were minority ethnic groups involved. So when one talks of a revival of Biafran autonomist politics today, does it strictly map on the

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Timothy Longman

Introduction Beginning in 1990, the small Central African country of Rwanda was shaken by a pro-democracy movement and a rebel invasion, led by exiled members of the minority Tutsi ethnic group. The government responded to the dual pressures of protest and war by offering political reforms while simultaneously seeking to regain popularity with the members of the majority Hutu group by stirring up anti-Tutsi ethnic sentiments. Both a number of new domestic human rights groups and international human rights organisations documented the regime’s repression of

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Interpreting Violence on Healthcare in the Early Stage of the South Sudanese Civil War
Xavier Crombé and Joanna Kuper

resources available, de Waal noted, Riek Machar, a member of the Nuer ethnic group, was more inclined than Salva Kiir to appeal to ethnic loyalty, and he mobilised a militia of Nuer youth, known as the ‘White Army’, alongside defecting forces making up the SPLA In Opposition (SPLA-IO). However, both sides soon proved ready to let loose grass-roots logics of predation and revenge to keep the conflict running while political bargaining continued, amid regional efforts to push for

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Megan Daigle, Sarah Martin, and Henri Myrttinen

been shot while deployed – one who was sleeping with a married woman, and another who had favoured one ethnic group over another in his work. ‘The danger wasn’t that ,’ he said, miming a military stance and cocking a rifle. ‘It was human. It’s more about navigating the social and political terrain.’ 31 Another told us: I worked in Iran and had to wear a headscarf there …. My scarf kept slipping and I was put under house arrest by the police because I

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Corporations, Celebrities and the Construction of the Entrepreneurial Refugee Woman
Annika Bergman Rosamond and Catia Gregoratti

Kenya, the Maasai tribes are known for handcrafting their beaded jewelry – colorful necklaces, bracelets and pendants – to maintain their pastoral lifestyle and in Ghana’s Akan ethnic group, they handcraft Kente, a type of silk and cotton fabric made of interwoven cloth strips, now known around the world’ ( Rigou, 2018 ). Hence, the main problem representation of RefuSHE is women’s positioning within displacement and structural

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Middle-Aged Syrian Women’s Contributions to Family Livelihoods during Protracted Displacement in Jordan
Dina Sidhva, Ann-Christin Zuntz, Ruba al Akash, Ayat Nashwan, and Areej Al-Majali

society. On average, rural, Sunni and less well-off Syrians had bigger families than urban residents and religious minorities, but there was great variety with regard to family-making within individual households and communities. As Syrian women from different social and ethnic groups experience displacement in distinct ways ( Alhayek, 2015 ; Ozkaleli, 2018 ), we begin by highlighting some particularities of our interlocutors’ backgrounds which are similar to those in Rabo’s (2008) study

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Germans and their ‘savages’ in southern Brazil at the turn of the nineteenth century
Stefan Rinke

immigrants joined other ethnic groups of European origin in a genocidal endeavour against the indigenous population. This was not obvious as a concerted effort at first sight and can be understood only by looking at the micro-constellations and everyday interactions which slowly but surely were destroying the foundations of indigenous life. In a small-scale war with guerrilla tactics both sides learned and adopted techniques from the other. The effect was a

in Savage worlds
Chris Gilligan

sectarianism as racism. Central to the debate about whether to treat sectarianism as racism lies a difficulty that bedevils ethnic and racial studies more broadly, the distinction between ‘race’, ‘nation’ and ‘ethnic group’. We draw on this wider discussion in examining the case for treating sectarianism as racism. In the third part we argue that the question ‘is sectarianism racism?’ is misleading. We draw on Steve Garner’s use of the concept of racisms to argue that, rather than thinking of racism in the singular, it is more useful to think of racism as taking many

in Northern Ireland and the crisis of anti-racism
The role of country of origin
Brendan D. Kelly

admission? Overall, research from countries other than Ireland suggests that being a member of a non-­majority ethnic group increases risk of involuntary detention and treatment. In New Zealand, DONNELLY 9780719099465 PRINT.indd 196 12/10/2015 15:59 Psychiatric admission in Ireland 197 involuntary admission is associated with Maori rather than European ethnicity (Wheeler et al., 2005). In Switzerland, involuntary admission is associated with being a ‘foreign national’, even after controlling for gender, age, diagnosis and severity of mental disorder (Lay et al., 2011

in Ethical and legal debates in Irish healthcare