A Christian modernity for tribal India
Author: David Hardiman

In November 1880 the Reverend Charles Thompson arrived at Kherwara, Rajasthan, India, to establish the first Anglican mission to the Bhils, a primitive tribe, by going amongst them as a healer. This book sets out the history of the interaction between the missionaries and the Bhils, a history of missionary medicine, and how certain Bhils forged their own relationship with modernity. During the 1870s, the Church Missionary Society declared its intention to open more missions 'among the non-Aryan hill-people', and the Bishop of Lahore wanted more missions to work amongst the 'aboriginal' Bhils. A great famine that began in 1899 brought radical changes in the mission to the Bhils. After the famine, many of the Bhagats, a local sect, became convinced that the sinless deity was the God of Christians, and they decided to convert en masse to Christianity. The missionaries working amongst the Bhils believed that Satan was in their midst, who was constantly enticing their hard-won converts to relinquish their new faith and revert to their 'heathen' ways. It was argued that 'heathen' beliefs and culture could be attacked only if female missionaries were required to work with native women. Mission work had always been hampered by a lack of funds, and at one time, the hospital at Lusadiya had to dissuade many would-be inpatients from coming for treatment due to lack of beds. The book also deals with the work of the mission in the post-colonial India, which laid more stress to healing than evangelism.

Jennifer Lloyd

returned to evangel­ism. She took over the Adelaide Town Hall, capacity 1,500, for thirteen weeks, where, the Bible Christian Magazine reported, ‘On every occasion hundreds are unable to obtain admission. The audience is composed of all classes – merchants, bankers, lawyers, shopkeepers, and   168   LLoyd_03_chap 5-8.indd 168 17/09/2009 10:04 women as revivalists working people – who hang upon her lips with breathless attention.’ She held a number of midnight meetings for prostitutes, successful enough to fill the local refuge.8 That year, at a time when she was

in Women and the shaping of British Methodism
Jennifer Lloyd

17/09/2009 10:04 women in eighteenth-century methodism fewer ministerial recruits. Congregations were often isolated and their separateness discouraged active evangelism, especially as many years of persecution had encouraged worshippers to turn in on themselves rather than reach out to others. There was a shift from evangelism, actively seeking to convert unbelievers, to education of those already committed to the congregation.7 Bryan Wilson described this as a shift from sect to denomination. He defined a sect as an exclusive but voluntary association of members

in Women and the shaping of British Methodism
Jennifer Lloyd

social upheaval had historically proved fertile for female evangelism. But by 1850 the moment had passed, and while neither the Primitive Methodists nor the Bible Christians formally abandoned female itinerancy, it declined and eventually died in the changing conditions of the second half of the nineteenth century. It is important to note that some women continued to preach within Wesleyan Methodism despite the 1803 Conference resolution preventing women from speaking in public except to all-female audiences and with their superintendent’s permission, although in many

in Women and the shaping of British Methodism
Jennifer Lloyd

:04 women and the shaping of british methodism anew in some of the sects that appeared after Wesley’s death, particularly in those concentrating their efforts in borderland areas not yet reached by Methodist preachers. As in early Methodism itself, these borderland sects emphasized evangelism. They often borrowed techniques from preachers on the American frontier, speaking in informal settings in the open air or barns to large crowds or to small groups in people’s houses. In 1815 William O’Bryan, founder of the Bible Christians, formalized his break from Wesleyan

in Women and the shaping of British Methodism
Tom Woodin

pubs.17 Sally Flood once claimed she never got on a bus without trying to sell a book of poetry while in the queue,18 while Tony Harcup stuck up poetry posters around East London and others distributed leaflets through doors.19 Nick Pollard, as editor of Federation magazine, remained an advocate of this enterprising promotional activity.20 The evangelism created new readers in significant numbers and broke through the shell that separated people from the world of reading and writing. 132 Working-class writing and publishing in the late twentieth century 9

in Working-class writing and publishing in the late twentieth century
Some medieval views of the crusades
Christopher Tyerman

–21) William’s Historia was known to Jacques de Vitry and Oliver of Paderborn, the former incorporating large sections of William into his influential Historia Orientalis (c. 1220). In his letters from the Fifth Crusade’s camp at Damietta, James even used William’s phrases for the First Crusade to describe circumstances in the later crusaders’ camp.28 Both James and Oliver were practising crusade preachers as well as historians. William’s image of the charismatic Peter the Hermit suited the emphasis on apostolic poverty, evangelism to the laity and moral rearmament

in The Debate on the Crusades
Jennifer Lloyd

began her career young and unmarried, married a fellow worker, and continued to serve with her husband. But unlike her foremothers, and perhaps attracted by the lure of exoticism, freedom, and adventure, her call was not to the unchurched at home or in British settler colonies, but to non-Christians outside Europe, what nineteenth-century European Christians called ‘heathen.’ Her career illustrates how women with a call to evangelism seized alternative opportunities as others diminished. As a Wesleyan, in the first half of the nineteenth century her main option would

in Women and the shaping of British Methodism
Jennifer Lloyd

itinerants or accepted as local preachers, found that institutionalization and slowing rates of growth in their denominations limited their opportunities for evangelism. While the 1820s and 1830s had been decades when female preachers played a vital role in the expansion of sectarian Methodism, once male leaders’ attention turned to ministering to the already converted and building chapels to accommodate them, women’s services were no longer essential. Women who felt the call to evangelism had to adapt. Methodist women did so by continuing to preach locally; even sects

in Women and the shaping of British Methodism
The imperial hymn
Jeffrey Richards

Hero-worship Linked to militarism is hero-worship. The heroes of Protestant Christianity are the exemplars of Christian virtue and service, sacrifice and faith. One of the most notable hero-worship hymns is William Walsham How’s For All the Saints Who From Their Labours Rest (1864), which blends militarism, evangelism and hero-worship. It was set to tunes by Sir Joseph

in Imperialism and music