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The imaginary archaeology of redevelopment
David Calder

3 Excavation: the imaginary archaeology of redevelopment Vaulx-en-Velin, May 2012. I have reached the end of the line. I alight from the subway train at Vaulx-en-Velin La Soie, the ‘multimodal’ transit hub that since October 2007 has connected this far-flung eastern banlieue to Lyon city centre. Diffuse light from frosted skylights bathes the underground platform in a soft glow. Warm-toned woods and evenly spaced palm trees set this station apart from the older, workaday concrete models I left behind in Lyon and Villeurbanne. In the years following this visit

in Street theatre and the production of postindustrial space
Jose López Mazz

This article will describe the contemporary scientific techniques used to excavate and identify the dead bodies of disappeared detainees from the Uruguayan dictatorship. It will highlight the developments that have led to increased success by forensic anthropologists and archaeologists in uncovering human remains, as well as their effects, both social and political, on promoting the right to the truth and mechanisms of transitional justice.

Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal
Andrzej Grzegorczyk

The Kulmhof extermination camp in Chełmno nad Nerem was the first camp set up by the Nazis to exterminate Jews during the Second World War. The history of Kulmhof has long been an area of interest for academics, but despite thorough research it remains one of the least-known places of its kind among the public. Studies of the role of archaeology in acquiring knowledge about the functioning of the camp have been particularly compelling. The excavations carried out intermittently over a thirty-year period (1986–2016), which constitute the subject of this article, have played a key role in the rise in public interest in the history of the camp.

Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal
Marco Aurelio Guimarães
,
Raffaela Arrabaça Francisco
,
Martin Evison
,
Edna Sadayo Miazato Iwamura
,
Carlos Eduardo Palhares Machado
,
Ricardo Henrique Alves da Silva
,
Maria Eliana Castro Pinheiro
,
Diva Santana
, and
Julie Alvina Guss Patrício

Exhumation may be defined as the legally sanctioned excavation and recovery of the remains of lawfully buried or – occasionally – cremated individuals, as distinct from forensic excavations of clandestinely buried remains conducted as part of a criminal investigation and from unlawful disinterment of human remains, commonly referred to as bodysnatching. The aim of this article is to review the role of exhumation – so defined – in the activities of CEMEL, the Medico-Legal Centre of the Ribeirão Preto Medical School-University of São Paulo, in international, regional and local collaborations. Exhumations form part of routine forensic anthropology casework; scientific research in physical and forensic anthropology; and forensic casework conducted in collaboration with the Brazilian Federal Police; and are carried out as part of humanitarian investigations into deaths associated with the civil–military dictatorship of 1964 to 1985. This article aims to offer a non-technical summary – with reference to international comparative information – of the role of exhumation in investigative and scientific work and to discuss developments in their historical and political context.

Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal
Deposits, waste or ritual remnants?
Philippe Lefranc
and
Fanny Chenal

Among the numerous human remains found in circular pits belonging to the fourth millennium BCE cultures north of the Alps, there are many examples of bodies laid in random (or unconventional) positions. Some of these remains in irregular configurations, interred alongside an individual in a conventional flexed position, can be considered as a ‘funerary accompaniment’. Other burials, of isolated individuals or multiple individuals buried in unconventional positions, suggest the existence of burial practices outside of the otherwise strict framework of funerary rites. The focus of this article is the evidence recently arising from excavation and anthropological studies from the Upper Rhine Plain (Michelsberg and Munzingen cultures). We assume that these bodies in unconventional positions were not dumped as trash, but that they were a part of the final act of a complex ritual. It is hypothesised that these bodies, interpreted here as ritual waste, were sacrificial victims, and a number of possible explanations, including ‘peripheral accompaniment’ or victims of acts of war, are debated.

Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal
Burials, body parts and bones in the earlier Upper Palaeolithic
Erik Trinkaus
,
Sandra Sázelová
, and
Jiří Svoboda

The rich earlier Mid Upper Palaeolithic (Pavlovian) sites of Dolní Vĕstonice I and II and Pavlov I (∼32,000–∼30,000 cal BP) in southern Moravia (Czech Republic) have yielded a series of human burials, isolated pairs of extremities and isolated bones and teeth. The burials occurred within and adjacent to the remains of structures (‘huts’), among domestic debris. Two of them were adjacent to mammoth bone dumps, but none of them was directly associated with areas of apparent discard (or garbage). The isolated pairs and bones/teeth were haphazardly scattered through the occupation areas, many of them mixed with the small to medium-sized faunal remains, from which many were identified post-excavation. It is therefore difficult to establish a pattern of disposal of the human remains with respect to the abundant evidence for site structure at these Upper Palaeolithic sites. At the same time, each form of human preservation raises questions about the differential mortuary behaviours, and hence social dynamics, of these foraging populations and how we interpret them through an archaeological lens.

Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal
Essays on his plays, poetry and production work

Since 1969, Howard Barker has written over a hundred dramatic works, six published volumes of poetry, two books of philosophical and aesthetic theory and a third-person autobiography/reflection on practice. This book provides international perspectives on the full range of Barker's achievements, theatrical and otherwise, and argues for their unique importance and urgency at the forefront of several genres of provocative modern art. Barker distinguishes his objectives from those of the conventional theatre by terming what he pursues the Art of Theatre: a felicitous term for an artist holistically engaged with so many facets of theatre artistry. The book identifies the technical challenges and performative pleasures and tactics of both the Barker character and the Barker actor, and provides an account of report and repetition in Barker's company, The Wrestling School. Barker's work between 1977 and 1986 offers remarkable presages: both of the play of national and global power, and of Barker's distinctive artistry. The book focuses specifically on Barker's theatrical orchestration of nakedness, and examines the underlying ideologies of systems of surveillance and punishment which would literally claim, frame, and thus contain the transgressive individual (body). It provides a series of readings of specific Barker plays such as I Saw Myself, Scenes from an Execution, Gertrude - The Cry, and The Bite of the Night. The book opens up a full examination of Barker's 'triple excavation', his mutually informative work in paintings, poems and plays.

Open Access (free)
The first Dutch excavation in Italy, 1952–58
Arthur Weststeijn
and
Laurien de Gelder

4 Digging dilettanti: the first Dutch excavation in Italy, 1952–58 Arthur Weststeijn and Laurien de Gelder What determines the possibility of an archaeological excavation abroad and its success? In September 1952, when two Dutch archaeologists with little experience on the ground started digging underneath the Santa Prisca church on the Aventine hill in Rome, this seemingly trivial question loomed large over their pioneering efforts. For decades, Rome had been the obvious centre of all archaeological attention worldwide – but the Eternal City was essentially

in Communities and knowledge production in archaeology
Kevin Colls

’s residency. The excavations differed in their approach and methodologies, and were both a product of their time. The site of New Place has revealed a very complex archaeological signature that itself helps to write its archaeological biography. After Gastrell Gastrell removed Sir John’s New Place in its entirety down to its foundations, with much of the rubble being used to fill the

in Finding Shakespeare’s New Place
The archaeology and history of an English leprosarium and almshouse
Simon Roffey

Between 2008 and 2015 extensive archaeological excavations were conducted at the former leprosarium and hospital of Saint Mary Magdalen, Winchester, Hampshire, England ( Figure 5.1 ). This work represents one of the first wide-scale excavations of an English leprosarium with its associated cemetery, 1 and has allowed for the cross-comparison of different forms of archaeological data, including burial, artefactual and structural material. It has also provided an important insight into the origins and development of one of the earliest leprosaria , and

in Leprosy and identity in the Middle Ages