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Film Renters in Manchester, 1910-1920
Richard Brown

Although film renting began in Britain in London, the rapid spread of cinemas after 1910 meant that there was a demand for distribution closer to the sites of exhibition. As a long-established trading centre, Manchester was well placed to become the hub for Northern distribution, and local trade directories list distributors from 1912 onwards. These clustered at first near Victoria Station, but soon moved to Deansgate, as independent distributors began to outnumber branch offices of the major companies. The life-expectancy of these was short, and the First Worlds War affected their business, but they remain an important and under-researched aspect of the early British cinema business.

Film Studies
The early practice of privateering
Benjamin de Carvalho and Halvard Leira

By the time most European polities started looking overseas in earnest in the late fifteenth century, the Iberian powers had already been able to secure papal sanction for what amounted to a global duopoly. 1 The Treaty of Tordesillas gave Spain and Portugal exclusive rights to half of the world each. A century later, both the duopoly and the religious order of Europe had been upended. A key

in The Sea and International Relations
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Author: David Whyte

This book explains the direct link between the structure of the corporation and its limitless capacity for ecological destruction. It argues that we need to find the most effective means of ending the corporation’s death grip over us. The corporation is a problem, not merely because it devours natural resources, pollutes and accelerates the carbon economy. As this book argues, the constitutional structure of the corporation eradicates the possibility that we can put the protection of the planet before profit. A fight to get rid of the corporations that have brought us to this point may seem an impossible task at the moment, but it is necessary for our survival. It is hardly radical to suggest that if something is killing us, we should over-power it and make it stop. We need to kill the corporation before it kills us.

Author: Stephen Miller

Feudalism, venality, and revolution is about the political and social order revealed by the monarchy’s most ambitious effort to reform its institutions, the introduction of participatory assemblies at all levels of the government. It should draw the attention of anyone interested in the sort of social and political conditions that predisposed people to make the French Revolution. In particular, according to Alexis de Tocqueville’s influential work on the Old Regime and the French Revolution, royal centralization had so weakened the feudal power of the nobles that their remaining privileges became glaringly intolerable to commoners. Feudalism, venality, and revolution challenges this theory by showing that when Louis XVI convened assemblies of landowners in the late 1770s and 1780s to discuss policies needed to resolve the budgetary crisis, he faced widespread opposition from lords and office holders. These elites regarded the assemblies as a challenge to their hereditary power over commoners. The monarchy incorporated an administration of seigneurial jurisdictions and venal offices. Lordships and offices upheld inequality on behalf of the nobility and bred the discontent evident in the French Revolution. These findings will alter the way scholars think about the Old Regime society and state and should therefore find a large market among graduate students and professors of European history.

Open Access (free)
War, National Debt, and the Capitalized State
Tim Di Muzio and Richard H. Robbins

for the same power, the bank’s owner-managers worked to solidify their exclusive rights. In the Bank of England’s recharter of 1697, Parliament agreed that no other bank should be erected while the Bank of England remained in operation. As Parliament needed to finance more foreign wars, additional protections were included in renewed charters: In 1708, during the War of Spanish Succession and again in exchange for a fresh loan, the Bank obtained from Parliament its most significant protection from competition: the legal prohibition of associations of more than six

in Debt as Power
Philip M. Taylor

‘collateral damage’ or how they had shot down American helicopters. Al Jazeera was given exclusive rights to bin Laden videotaped interviews which were then relayed by other stations to western audiences. The time difference meant that London and Washington were on the defensive responding to such claims. It was not until the creation of Coalition Information Centres in London, Washington and – most crucially – in Islamabad that this situation was reversed. But, by then, a lot of damage had been done to the coalition’s cause. Serious doubts had been cast on the veracity of

in Munitions of the Mind
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Too different to compare?
Amanda Slevin

state to think about its hydrocarbon potential, interest in Norwegian hydrocarbons did not emerge until gas was discovered in the Dutch Groningen fields in 1959. In 1962, the American oil company Phillips Petroleum approached the Norwegian state and requested ‘exclusive rights’ to explore in Norwegian territory. Phillips sought exclusive rights to all hydrocarbons on the NCS for forty years and ‘luckily some wise people in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs did not agree’ (JCCNRA, 2012b). Carl August Fleischer, a former civil servant and lawyer involved in creating

in Gas, oil and the Irish state

have invested at least $30 million in preparation for seabed mining, of which at least 10 per cent must have been invested in a specific site. Certifying States were to detail two sites, one to be allocated by PREPCOM to the pioneer, and the other banked for eventual use by the ISA through its mining arm, the Enterprise. In their sites, pioneers were to have immediate and exclusive rights to conduct

in The law of the sea
Bill Dunn

-European, particularly from the Baltic, but by the seventeenth century the activities of the Dutch East India Company became increasingly important, largely and more brutally displacing the Portuguese in the exploitation of the Indies. It was a ‘chartered company’, private and more clearly organised on capitalist lines than the Iberian traders, but it was supported by the government, which protected its exclusive rights over overseas commercial spaces. The company issued shares which would be the mainstay of the Amsterdam bourse, itself not without precedent but providing new levels

in Keynes and Marx
Open Access (free)
William Camden’s Annales
Ben Dew

which they were granted exclusive rights to trade with a particular territory. This practice had been utilised by Mary, who chartered the Muscovy Company (1555), and Elizabeth, who helped to establish the Barbary (1585), East India (1600) and Levant Companies (1592). James then extended it, augmenting the East India Company’s privileges in 1609, and granting new charters to, among others, the Spanish Company (1605), the Virginia Company (1606) and the Newfoundland Company (1610). What was unique to James’s reign, however, was the level of opposition such measures

in Commerce, finance and statecraft