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France and the Spanish Civil War refugees, 1939–2009
Author: Scott Soo

As they trudged over the Pyrenees, the Spanish republicans became one of the most iconoclastic groups of refugees to have sought refuge in twentieth-century France. This book explores the array of opportunities, constraints, choices and motivations that characterised their lives. Using a wide range of empirical material, it presents a compelling case for rethinking exile in relation to refugees’ lived experiences and memory activities. The major historical events of the period are covered: the development of refugees’ rights and the ‘concentration’ camps of the Third Republic, the para-military labour formations of the Second World War, the dynamics shaping resistance activities, and the role of memory in the campaign to return to Spain. This study additionally analyses how these experiences have shaped homes and France’s memorial landscape thereby offering an unparalleled exploration of the long-term effects of exile from the mass exodus of 1939 through to the seventieth-anniversary commemorations in 2009.

History and representations of confino

Confino (i.e., internal exile) was a malleable form of imprisonment during the Fascist ventennio. Confinement allowed Mussolini to bypass the judiciary thereby placing prisoners outside magistrates’ jurisdiction. The Regime applied it to political dissidents, ethnic and religious minorities, gender nonconforming people, and mafiosi, among others. Recent political discourse in and beyond Italy has drawn on similar rationales to address perceived threats against the State. This study examines confino from a historical, political, social, and cultural perspective. It provides a broad overview of the practice and it also examines particular cases and situations. In addition to this historical assessment, it is the first to analyse confinement as a cultural practice through representations in literature (e.g., letters, memoirs, historical fiction) and film. English-language publications often overlook confino and its representations. Italian critical literature, instead, often speaks in purely historical terms or is rooted in partisan perspectives. This book demonstrates that internal exile is not purely political: it possesses a cultural history that speaks to the present. The scope of this study, therefore, is to provide a cultural reading that makes manifest aspects of confino that have been appropriated by contemporary political discourse. Although directed towards students and specialists of Italian history, literature, film, and culture, the study offers a coherent portrait of confino accessible to those with a general interest in Fascism.

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Biographies, memories and experiences of the Italian anti-fascist broadcasters
Ester Lo Biundo

assicurare la propria sopravvivenza altrove … In esilio si può stare in due modi: c’è un modo di andare in esilio semplicemente per salvarsi la pelle, insomma, per assicurare la propria sopravvivenza; c’è invece un modo di andare in esilio per continuare a lottare, perché nel proprio paese non è possibile, in quanto si finirebbe in galera, o addirittura fucilati. 1 Exile, as we generally and historically know it, is the situation of few or many individuals who

in London calling Italy
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Brian Baker

) lies not in the banal, everyday existence of its denizens, but in the visionary ‘dispossessed’. One of the living writers Sinclair celebrates is Michael Moorcock, who, in Rodinsky’s Room , is described as ‘another exile; the great Londoner, memory conduit, had shifted himself [to Texas]’. 7 Moorcock actually does live in Texas: he is seen in his home in the Petit–Sinclair film Asylum . However, the motif of exile is a recurrent one in the figures that Sinclair investigates, the ‘outsiders’. In Edge of the Orison , we find the same figure

in Iain Sinclair
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Martine Beugnet

been relegated to the shadowy areas of a little spoken past. But these are precisely the themes that inform Denis’ filmmaking. Issues relating to colonialism and postcolonialism, to exile and alienation, always at play in her work, are central to the films discussed in this chapter. Chocolat’s lush natural and historical setting and Beau travail’s stunning open landscapes on the one hand, and S

in Claire Denis
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Michael Staunton

Anselm’s decision to go into exile. 4 The Icelandic Saga provides an elaborate gloss: the hedgehog represents Thomas, the stiffness of his hair his defence against assailants, and its roughness his harsh manner of life; the Acts of the Apostles on his back represents Thomas’s adherence to their footsteps; the blind are those who hate godly light and walk in the

in The lives of Thomas Becket
Piero Garofalo, Elizabeth Leake, and Dana Renga

138 4 Screening internal exile Introduction: Confino as holiday Film has received short shrift in studies on internal exile during Fascism. Those who write on it tend to mention only two films on the subject, in most cases quite briefly:  Ettore Scola’s Una giornata particolare (A Special Day, 1977)  and Francesco Rosi’s Cristo si è fermato a Eboli (Christ Stopped at Eboli, 1979), which narrate the experience in disparate fashions.1 In the former, internal exile is briefly referenced, while the latter visualises the experience of political confinement

in Internal exile in Fascist Italy
The political nationalism of the Irish diaspora since the 1790s
David T. Gleeson

5 Emigrants and exiles: the political nationalism of the Irish diaspora since the 1790s David T. Gleeson In February 1995, President Mary Robinson gave an address to a joint session of the Oireachtas (Irish Parliament) titled ‘Cherishing the Diaspora’, explaining in more detail the promise in her inaugural speech to ‘represent’ the ‘over 70 million people of this globe who claim Irish descent’.1 Irish emigration had long been in the consciousness of the Irish people, but it seemed to many that the story had ended at the water’s edge. Quoting poet Eavan Boland

in British and Irish diasporas
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The Sleeping Tiger (1954), A Man on the Beach (1955) and The Intimate Stranger (1956)
Colin Gardner

Paranoia for the exile is a prerequisite of survival. (Salman Rushdie, The Satanic Verses ) Exile is life led outside habitual order. It is nomadic, decentred, contrapuntal; but no sooner does one get accustomed to it than its unsettling force erupts anew. (Edward Said, Reflections on Exile ) 1

in Joseph Losey
Piero Garofalo, Elizabeth Leake, and Dana Renga

91 3 Writing internal exile Writing confinement This chapter examines internal exile as it appears in literary fiction, personal correspondence, and memoirs. Unlike in the previous discussion of the history of confinement, the concern is not with the investigation and deployment of truths but rather with representational strategies; we are interested in how these texts convey information and how they suppress it. The questions addressed in the following sections, then, are the following: How did people write about their experiences in internal exile? What did

in Internal exile in Fascist Italy