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Alex Schafran, Matthew Noah Smith, and Stephen Hall

to muster in the face of inadequate, precarious or exploitative reliance systems to do more than cobble together a precarious way of living? How do we build or advocate for a healthier spatial contract in the face of rampant inequality, domination, oppression and exploitation in the provision of reliance systems? How can we argue for a healthier spatial contract when existing relations between people and the systems they rely on are constantly being undermined or destroyed? It is one thing to demand that those with ample agency realized by an under-appreciated set

in The spatial contract
Correspondence and the next generation of scholars
Alan S. Ross

6 Networks, patronage and exploitation: correspondence and the next generation of scholars Artemon, the editor of Aristotle’s letters, called them ‘conversations cut in half’, and indeed few other kinds of sources can give the modern-day reader a similar feeling of intimacy with historical subjects.1 Much has been said about the symbolic value of interactions within the Republic of Letters, at times to the detriment of the exploration of their practical uses. When pupils left the Zwickau Latin school for university, they were better prepared in the technical

in Daum’s boys
German colonial botany at the Botanic Garden and Botanical Museum Berlin
Katja Kaiser

the field of colonial botany on landscapes and societies in the colonies, indigenous reactions to exploitation and the post-colonial memory of German botanists and planters. 2 Finally, the oscillation between the remembering and the forgetting of the institution’s colonial legacy since 1945 to the present day will be explored in the context of public debates on Germany’s colonial past and colonial

in Sites of imperial memory
Jonathan Pattenden

4 Changing dynamics of exploitation in rural South India The city of Bengaluru harbours a floating population that runs into the hundreds of thousands. Most are unskilled labourers from the neighbouring states of Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu, the north of India and the north-east of Karnataka. Some of these circular migrants only stay for a month or two during the slack season in agriculture. Many stay for several years. Members of most of the scheduled caste households in this book’s Raichur fieldwork area have circulated through the construction sites of

in Labour, state and society in rural India
Henry A. McGhie

4 Early exploits in ornithological society T his chapter further explores Henry Dresser’s establishment in scientific society during the 1860s, when he was in his twenties. The separation between his life in scientific society, his business career and his personal life is in some senses artificial, as the different aspects were interwoven. He held great ambitions in natural history society, just as he did in business. His ‘prospects’ of advancing himself were determined by various factors: his position in society; what specimens he could bring to the table

in Henry Dresser and Victorian ornithology
Patient work in rural asylums in Württemberg, c. 1810–1945
Thomas Müller

10 Between therapeutic instrument and exploitation of labour force: Patient work in rural asylums in Württemberg, c. 1810–1945 Thomas Müller Labour has begun to figure prominently in recent historical research. It has been scrutinised especially with respect to its organisation in different sociopolitical systems,1 in agrarian2 and industrial societies,3 for example, and also with respect to ‘race’.4 A frequent focus has been the interaction between global processes and local conditions,5 and definitions of ‘non-work’.6 In the field of the history of medicine

in Work, psychiatry and society, c. 1750–2015
Charlotte Dale

3 The social exploits and behaviour of nurses during the Anglo-Boer War, 1899–19021 Charlotte Dale During the Second Anglo-Boer War, two key watchwords associated with serving nurses were ‘duty’ and ‘respectability’.2 At the commencement of war, women from across the Empire, including trained nurses, saw the opportunity to travel to South Africa to experience war and work alongside men as their equals, caught up in a patriotic fervour to defend and expand the Queen’s lands. The war, which resulted from years of ambitious encounters over gold deposits, Afrikaner

in Colonial caring
Bulletin of the John Rylands Library
Daniel Biltereyst

Arguing that limit transgression is a key feature for understanding the cinematic performance of, and the controversy around, sexuality in the public sphere, this contribution focuses on various aspects of limit transgression in relation to sex cinemas. Following a new cinema history approach and concentrating on the case of an emerging sex cinema in postwar Belgium (Cinema Leopold in Ghent, 1945–54), this article looks at various dimensions of limit transgression in terms of concrete physical and spatial relations; programming strategies; audience experiences; and a range of disciplining societal practices and institutional discourses.

Film Studies
‘Marx’s Economy and Beyond’ and Other Essays
Editors: Mark Harvey and Norman Geras

This book arose out of a friendship between a political philosopher and an economic sociologist, and their recognition of an urgent political need to address the extreme inequalities of wealth and power in contemporary societies.

The book provides a new analysis of what generates inequalities in rights to income, property and public goods in contemporary societies. It claims to move beyond Marx, both in its analysis of inequality and exploitation, and in its concept of just distribution. In order to do so, it critiques Marx’s foundational Labour Theory of Value and its closed-circuit conception of the economy. It points to the major historical transformations that create educational and knowledge inequalities, inequalities in rights to public goods that combine with those to private wealth. In two historical chapters, it argues that industrial capitalism introduced new forms of coerced labour in the metropolis alongside a huge expansion of slavery and indentured labour in the New World, with forms of bonded labour lasting well into the twentieth century. Only political struggles, rather than any economic logic of capitalism, achieved less punitive forms of employment. It is argued that these were only steps along a long road to challenge asymmetries of economic power and to realise just distribution of the wealth created in society.