is typical of royal reaction to the killing and robbery
of Jews elsewhere in Castile and in the neighbouring kingdom of
A document issued by Benedict
XIII, who was recognised as pope in much of Iberia for a number of
years but eventually emerged as an ‘anti-pope’,
indicates that the idea of expulsion, which had already been tried
1990s, after an appeal for international aid due to famine. Levels of aid engagement have fluctuated and the famine ended nearly two decades ago, but humanitarian presence has endured. Some agencies and NGOs have been in the country for over twenty years. Others have ended their projects due to funding, concerns over aid being able to reach the most vulnerable and issues with monitoring ( Smith, 2002 ; Médecins Sans Frontières, 2014 ), as well as expulsion by the DPRK authorities ( Ojardias, 2013 : 61–2). South Korean NGOs require ROK government approval for aid
Lewis Hine’s Photographs of Refugees for the American Red Cross, 1918–20
Sonya de Laat
not merely a claim to national rights but a theory of power’ ( Ngai, 2004 : 12).
At the time, no internationally recognized legal definition existed for the group of people ‘that appeared in the public arena virtually overnight’ ( Gatrell, 2005 : 197). The term ‘refugee’ had been resurrected during the Great War’s early years, having not been applied to mass population movements since the Huguenot’s expulsion from France in 1685 ( Germano, 2015 ). By the time the term was applied in World War I, it had expanded from its original meaning of Protestant persecution
The Politics of Information and Analysis in Food Security
Daniel Maxwell and Peter Hailey
government employees). On several occasions, reports from whole analyses were
quashed; on many occasions, changes to reports were required. National
government technical staff involved in the famine declaration were fired from
their government jobs and expatriate analysts threated with expulsion and, in at
least one case, directly attacked.
Political constraints and influences, by country case study
Marie-Luce Desgrandchamps, Lasse Heerten, Arua Oko Omaka, Kevin O'Sullivan, and Bertrand Taithe
Biafra’s collapse was the
expulsion of several relief agencies. The Joint Church Aid airlift came to an end,
Concern was expelled from Nigeria, Canairelief flights ended and the organisation
folded. By the end of January 1970, a sizeable number of Irish missionaries –
many of whom had been prominent in the delivery of relief – were placed under
arrest and eventually deported from Nigeria. In the medium term, the shift to
development and rehabilitation work created
At the end of the Second World War, some 12 million German refugees and expellees fled or were expelled from their homelands in Eastern and Central Europe into what remained of the former Reich. The task of integrating these dispossessed refugees and expellees in post-war Germany was one of the most daunting challenges facing the Allied occupying authorities after 1945. The early post-war years witnessed the publication of many works on the refugee problem in the German Federal Republic (FRG). This book explores the origins of the refugee problem and shows that the flight and expulsion of the refugees and expellees from their homelands from 1944 onwards was a direct consequence of National Socialist policies. It outlines the appalling conditions under which the expulsions were carried out. The book then examines the immensity of the refugee problem in the Western Occupation Zones in economic and social terms. An analysis of the relations between the refugee and native populations in the Western Occupation Zones of Germany in the period 1945-1950 follows. The book also focuses on the attitude of the political parties towards the refugees and expellees in the early post-war years and analyses the newcomers' voting behaviour up to 1950. It argues that while economic and political integration had been largely accomplished by the late 1960s, social integration turned out to be a more protracted process. Finally, the book examines political radicalisation: despite disturbances in refugee camps in 1948-1949 and the emergence of expellee trek associations in 1951-1952.
"It is the contention of this book that there was a notion of international law in the medieval period, and more specifically in the period 700 to 1200. It examines and analyses the ways and the extent to which such as system of rules was known and followed in the Middle Ages by exploring treaties as the main source of international law, and by following a known framework of evidencing it: that it was practised on a daily basis; that there was a reliance upon justification of action; that the majority of international legal rules were consistently obeyed; and finally, that it had the function to resolve disputed questions of fact and law. This monograph further considers problems such as enforcement, deterrence, authority, and jurisdiction, considering carefully how they can be observed in the medieval evidence, and challenging traditional ideas over their role and function in the history of international law. This monograph then, attempts to make a leap forward in thinking about how rulers, communities, and political entities conducted diplomacy and regulated their interactions with each other in a period before fully fledged nation states.
This book explores the Spanish elite’s fixation on social and racial “passing” and “passers” as represented in a wide range of texts produced in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. It examines literary and non-literary works that express the dominant Spaniards’ anxiety that socially mobile New Christians could impersonate and pass as versions of themselves. Current scholarship has implicitly postulated that the social energy that led to the massive marginalization of New Christians and/or lowborns from central social spaces, and the marginals’ attempts to hide their true identity, had its roots in the elite’s rejection of sociocultural and genealogical heterogeneity, or “difference.” Christina Lee makes a key intervention in this discussion by proposing that there was a parallel phenomenon at play that might have been as resounding as an anxiety roused by the presence of those who were clearly different, a phenomenon she calls “the anxiety of sameness.” Lee argues that while conspicuous religious and socio-cultural difference was certainly perturbing and unsettling, in some ways, it was not as threatening to the dominant Spanish identity as the potential discovery of the arbitrariness that separated them from the undesirables of society. Students and seasoned scholars of Spanish history and literature will not only benefit from Lee’s arguments about the elite’s attempt to deny the fluidity of early modern identity, but also gain from her fresh readings of the works of Cervantes, Lope de Vega, and Quevedo, as well as her analyses of lesser known works, such as joke books, treatises, genealogical catalogues, and documentary accounts.
namely, the expulsion of those deemed to have committed some form of
Expulsion – exile, banishment, outlawry, or whatever
we want to call it – has been defined by William Walters as a
practice ‘used against the individual who is understood to be a
member of the political community or nation. It is used as a form of
punishment, but also security.’ 1 Scholars are generally agreed that it
a long-term solution.
The expulsion of the Jesuits, first from Paris, then from France, created
an institutional void that would demand government attention and offer
an opportunity, for those so inclined, to imagine a dramatic overhaul of
education in France.1 The Jesuits had controlled 111 collèges prior to 1762,
about 30 per cent of the national total (roughly 330).2 Their expulsion
removed approximately 1,250 Jesuits from the schools, raising questions
about how and by whom the next generation of Frenchmen would be
educated.3 These concerns quickly reached