The first European Union's (EU) enlargement of the twenty-first century coincides with a period of international tension and transition. Tensions have been apparent over: the war in Iraq, the 'War on Terror', immigration, organised crime, ethnic confrontation, human rights, energy resources and the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD). The EU has made genuine progress in developing its security policies since the launch of the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) and Justice and Home Affairs (JHA) in the Treaty on European Union (TEU). This book examines the impact that enlargement will have on leadership within the EU, a pre-requisite for policy coherence. It focuses on what has been Europe's most significant region in terms of security challenges and international responses since the end of the Cold War: the Balkan. The book provides an overview of the foreign policy priorities and interests of the new member states (NMS), highlighting areas of match and mismatch with those of the EU fifteen. Counter-terrorism has emerged from the shadows of the EU's Third Pillar, and has been propelled to the forefront of the EU's internal agenda, driven by the demands of the 'War on Terror'. The book discusses the core elements of the EU's emerging common external border management, with a focus on the creation of the EU's new External Borders Agency and the Schengen Borders Code. While the first two are declarative partnership and declarative negativism, the last two reflect the struggle between pragmatism and Soviet-style suspicion of Western bureaucrats.
The EU’s emerging common external border management
After exploring the historical and political background of
co-operation between EU member states on external border issues, this
chapter will identify and analyse the core elements of the
Union’s emerging common externalbordermanagement, with a
particular focus on the creation of the EU’s new External Borders
Agency and the Schengen Borders Code. It will end with an evaluation of
the progress made
The Janus face of EU migration and visa policies in the neighbourhood
to manage their flow, the (2016) President of the European
Issues and sectors
Council, Donald Tusk, pleaded with European leaders that member states
must stop fighting over different plans for safeguarding the external
border, coordinate more effectively and, crucially, respect the rules they
had agreed on.
Despite the proliferation of strategies, technologies, and the focus on risk
prevention, harmonised externalbordermanagement alone proved to be
an inadequate response to tackling the internal security deficit. Rather than
details of this case, see US State Department, Patterns of Global Terrorism 1998
(Washington DC, 1999).
68 Richard Clutterbuck, Terrorism, Drugs and Crime in Europe after 1992 (London: Routledge,
1990), p. 124.
69 Antonio Vitorino, Models for European Co-operation within an Enlarged European Union – a
Speech by the JHA Commissioner on 28 January 2003 (Brussels, 2003).
70 As an excellent summary of the main academic debates surrounding the external border,
see Jorg Monar, ‘The External Shield of Internal Security: The EU’s Emerging Common