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Andrew Denham, Andrew S. Roe-Crines, and Peter Dorey

When the Conservative leadership rules had been devised in 1965 and then revised in 1975, they deliberately denied the extra-parliamentary party a formal input, reflecting the firm belief that MPs were best placed to make judgements about who should lead them. Provision was made for the Conservative Party beyond Parliament to express its preferences, but on a purely consultative basis; the party’s MPs were under no obligation to vote in accordance with the views expressed by members of the extra-parliamentary party. Moreover, as Conservative MPs voted by

in Choosing party leaders
Richard Kelly

5 Richard Kelly The extra-parliamentary party Organisational reform and the extra-parliamentary party Richard Kelly As shown by the history of the Labour Party after 1979, electorally defeated parties have a tendency to re-examine their organisation. After all, the main function of political parties is to seek power and the main function of party organisation is to help them achieve it. As such, electoral failure nearly always brings into question a party’s internal arrangements – and this was certainly true of the Conservatives after the 1997 general election

in The Conservatives in Crisis
A distinctive politics?
Author: Richard Taylor

English radicalism has been a deep-rooted but minority tradition in the political culture since at least the seventeenth century. The central aim of this book is to examine, in historical and political context, a range of key events and individuals that exemplify English radicalism in the twentieth century. This analysis is preceded by defining precisely what has constituted this tradition; and by the main outline of the development of the tradition from the Civil War to the end of the nineteenth century. Three of the main currents of English radicalism in the twentieth century have been the labour movement, the women’s movement and the peace movement. These are discussed in some detail, as a framework for the detailed consideration of ten key representative figures of the tradition in the twentieth century: Bertrand Russell, Sylvia Pankhurst, Ellen Wilkinson, George Orwell, E.P. Thompson, Michael Foot, Joan Maynard, Stuart Hall, Tony Benn and Nicolas Walter. The question of ‘agency’ – of how to bring about radical change in a predominantly conservative society and culture – has been a fundamental issue for English radicals. It is argued that, in the twentieth century, many of the important achievements in progressive politics have taken place in and through extra-parliamentary movements, as well as through formal political parties and organisations – the Labour Party and other socialist organisations – and on occasion, through libertarian and anarchist politics. The final chapter considers the continuing relevance of this political tradition in the early twenty-first century, and reviews its challenges and prospects.

David Dutton

Edward Hemmerde and Francis Neilson were both Liberal MPs at the outbreak of the First World War, bound together by a common commitment to the principle of land taxation. A shortage of money, at a time when MPs had only just started to receive salaries, led them into extra-parliamentary co-operation in the joint authorship of plays. But the two men fell out over the profits from their literary endeavours. One or other was clearly not telling the truth. Although he gave up his parliamentary career in opposition to British involvement in the war, Neilson later prospered greatly as a writer in the United States. Meanwhile, Hemmerde turned to his career as Recorder of Liverpool, but the wealth that he craved eluded him. This article reminds us that financial impropriety among MPs is no new phenomenon, while highlighting the difficulty of establishing certain historical truth in the face of conflicting documentary evidence.

Bulletin of the John Rylands Library
Richard Taylor

popular, democratic rights could be won; and that the complex social relationships engendered in the evolution of industrial and post-industrial society could become the basis for a truly democratic society. These then are some of the core values of the English radical tradition. It may be objected that this is not an especially distinctive profile. What is so special about English radicalism? Its distinctiveness, I would argue, lies in two related characteristics: first, the emphasis upon social movement, extra-parliamentary activity as a means of achieving progressive

in English radicalism in the twentieth century
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The art and politics of West German Maoism
Lauren Graber and Daniel Spaulding

. The shift to Maoism was in part a response to the failure of the student, anti-war and anti-rearmament movements, collectively known as the Außerparlamentarische Opposition (APO, Extra-Parliamentary Opposition), whose struggles peaked in 1967–68. In 1961 the Sozialistischer Deutscher Studentenbund (SDS, Socialist German Student League) was expelled from its parent organisation, the SPD, for failing to adopt the party’s new reformist line. Over the subsequent few years, the SDS moved in an increasingly radical direction. With support from the larger student movement

in Art, Global Maoism and the Chinese Cultural Revolution
Richard Taylor

mobilisation has always been held to be an essential element in the struggle for radical change. As these case studies have shown, all those espousing English radicalism have held to these values, to the ethos of extra-parliamentary protest, and, in many instances, to the secularised Nonconformist moral code that underlay them. This politics has been articulated through the formal political process, but the focus has been particularly both upon the generalised struggle for socialist and libertarian change, and upon key ‘issue’ movements: for peace, for feminism, for anti

in English radicalism in the twentieth century
Attitudes towards subversive movements and violent organisations
Ami Pedahzur

THE DEMOCRATIC POLITY’S struggle against manifestations of extra-parliamentary extremism and political violence is accompanied by a similar and perhaps even more acute quandary than its contest with political parties. In this struggle the government possesses the means to substantially restrict the freedom of expression and association of its citizens, consequently harming a number of their democratic rights. However, in its struggle against extremism, violence and, at times, even terrorism, the democracy is sometimes impelled to employ

in The Israeli response to Jewish extremism and violence
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Simon James Morgan

selectively promoted certain types of popular politician while acting to contain and neutralise their radical possibilities. Cultural and economic as well as political developments therefore played a key role in the absorption of radical energies by mainstream politics and society. Popular politicians and extra-parliamentary politics What did popular politicians bring to the movements which they frequently dominated, and how did the nature of their images and their relationship with their followers differ in each movement? The theme of attacks on popular politicians in

in Celebrities, heroes and champions
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Boyhood, duty and war
Mary A. Conley

this argument: this was surely a case where commemoration was negotiated among the myriad interests of the bereaved, the state and private extra-parliamentary organisations. 67 True, acts of commemoration often expressed them selves in state-sponsored forms – a state funeral, the award of a Victoria Cross, the establishment of a school holiday – and the state mobilised the public to participate in

in From Jack Tar to Union Jack