A quiet revolution
Author: Simha Goldin

The Jewish society that lived amongst the Christian population in medieval Europe presents a puzzle and a challenge to any historian. This book presents a study on the relationship between men and women within the Jewish society that lived among the Christian population for a period of some 350 years. The study concentrates on Germany, northern France and England from the middle of the tenth century until the middle of the second half of the fourteenth century - by which time the Christian population has had enough of the Jewish communities living among them and expels them from almost all the places they were living in. The picture portrayed by Mishnaic and talmudic literature was that basically women lived under the authority of someone else (their fathers or husbands), therefore, their status was different from that of men. Four paradigms were the outcome of research blending questions raised within the spheres of gender research and feminist theory with the research methodology of social history. These were Rashi and the 'family paradigm'; the negative male paradigm; the Hasidic paradigm; and the community paradigm. The highest level of Jewish religious expression is the performance of the mitzvot - the divine Commandments. Women were not required to perform all the Commandments, yet their desire to perform and fully experience the mitzvot extended to almost all areas of halakhah. The book also describes how the sages attempted to dictate to women the manner of their observance of mitzvot set aside for women alone.

Simha Goldin

our topic, and presents yet another paradigm for viewing women and their role in the systems of Jewish society. These four paradigms that are presented below are the outcome of research blending questions raised within the spheres of gender research and feminist theory with the research methodology of social history. Rashi and the ‘family paradigm’ Rabbi Solomon ben Isaac

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International socialisation across the pond?
Kelly Kollman

. These arguments have been particularly difficult to deploy in the debate about relationship recognition as such recognition lies at the heart of the traditional family paradigm. Nor have these groups been able to use foreign examples to add legitimacy to their claim that state relationship recognition is a human right. In Canada, by contrast, the human rights revolution that has occurred in the wake of the Charter’s adoption has primed Canadians to accept human rights-based arguments as legitimate grounds for far-reaching policy change. It also has made elites and

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Emma Liggins

in society still depends on her father if she remains single, locating her within a family paradigm that she cannot escape: ‘Whereas a married woman takes her husband’s rank by the strict laws of precedence, an unmarried woman retains the station her father occupied’ (p. 113). Single women are given the option to act as surrogate mothers or to involve themselves with voluntary work, both of which result in disaster for Yonge’s clever woman. Like Honora, Rachel in The Clever Woman of the Family is shown to be something of an unfit mother, as she eagerly takes on the

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