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Osamu Nakamura

8 Patient work and family care at Iwakura, Japan, c. 1799–1970 Osamu Nakamura Iwakura is a village located seven kilometres northeast of Kyoto, the ancient capital of Japan. It has a famous legend. During the reign of Emperor Go-Sanjo (reigned 1068–72), a princess who was afflicted with a mental condition was cured after praying to the image of Buddha at Daiunji-Temple in Iwakura and drinking water from the temple well.1 This is a well-known story that highlights the connection between Iwakura and mental illness. It was not uncommon for those suffering from a

in Work, psychiatry and society, c. 1750–2015
Abstract only
Masculinity and mental illness in Victorian Britain
Author: Amy Milne-Smith

Out of his Mind is a study of the consequences of a diagnosis of insanity for men, their families, their friends, and the culture at large.

Studying the madman allows for an exploration of the cultural expectations of male behaviour, how men responded to those norms in their lived experiences, and what defined the bare minimums of acceptable male behaviour. Men’s authority in society was rooted in control over dependants within their household and beyond; without that power, the foundation of their manhood was in question. As such, madness touched on a key tenet of nineteenth-century masculinity: control. Building on accounts from sufferers, doctors, government officials, journalists, and novelists, Out of his Mind offers insight into the shifting anxieties surrounding men in mental distress. Exploring everything from wrongful confinement panics, to cultures of shame and stigma, to fears of degeneration, this study makes an important contribution to histories of gender and medicine.

This text puts the madman at the centre of the history of Victorian masculinity and helps us better understand the stigma of men’s mental illness that continues to this day.

Patient work in rural asylums in Württemberg, c. 1810–1945
Thomas Müller

therapeutic objectives underlying it. It will be important to differentiate between work performed by patients within psychiatric institutions (such as agricultural colonies and workshops) and outside institutions (such as family care). Within the wider German context, when compared to other German states, Württemberg’s Innenministerium or Ministry for Home Affairs was ahead of its time during the early nineteenth century with regard to the care of the mentally ill. Earlier than in other regions, former monasteries were converted into asylums, as was the case at Zwiefalten

in Work, psychiatry and society, c. 1750–2015
Contested boundaries and new solidarities
Sílvia Bofill-Poch

Since the beginning of the 2008 financial crisis, grassroots activism around care has significantly increased in Spain, and particularly in Catalonia. Especially significant has been activism by immigrant women who are fighting to have their rights as domestic workers recognised. Other groups, such as family carers and professionals from the public health and welfare system, have also made themselves heard, organising protests against the cutbacks in social programmes, the precariousness of public services, and the lack of recognition and

in Intimacy and mobility in an era of hardening borders
Benoît Majerus and Pieter Verstraete

clear that several counter-initiatives paralleled the aforementioned institutional approach. In what follows, two specific examples of these counter-initiatives will be introduced. The first refers to a long-standing tradition of family care for people with psychiatric disorders. The other looks at the emergence of rehabilitation in the context of

in Medical histories of Belgium
Editor: Waltraud Ernst

This edited book offers a systematic critical appraisal of the uses of work and work therapy in psychiatric institutions across the globe, from the late eighteenth to the end of the twentieth century. Contributors explore the daily routine in psychiatric institutions within the context of the wider socio-political and economic conditions. They examine whether work was therapy, part of a regime of punishment, or a means of exploiting free labour. By focusing on mental patients’ day-to-day life in closed institutions, the authors fill a gap in the history of psychiatric regimes. The geographic scope is wide, ranging from Northern America to Japan, India and Western as well as Eastern Europe, and authors engage with broader historical questions, such as the impact of colonialism and communism, the effect of the World Wars, and issues of political governance and care in the community schemes.

Author: Alannah Tomkins

Victorian medical men could suffer numerous setbacks on their individual paths to professionalisation, and Thomas Elkanah Hoyle's career offers a telling exemplar. This book addresses a range of the financial, professional, and personal challenges that faced and sometimes defeated the aspiring medical men of England and Wales. Spanning the decades 1780-1890, from the publication of the first medical directory to the second Medical Registration Act, it considers their careers in England and Wales, and in the Indian Medical Service. The book questions the existing picture of broad and rising medical prosperity across the nineteenth century to consider the men who did not keep up with professionalising trends. Financial difficulty was widespread in medical practice, and while there are only a few who underwent bankruptcy or insolvency identified among medical suicides, the fear of financial failure could prove a powerful motive for self-destruction. The book unpicks the life stories of men such as Henry Edwards, who could not sustain a professional persona of disinterested expertise. In doing so it uncovers the trials of the medical marketplace and the pressures of medical masculinity. The book also considers charges against practitioners that entailed their neglect, incompetence or questionable practice which occasioned a threat to patients' lives. The occurrence and reporting of violent crime by medical men, specifically serious sexual assault and murder is also discussed. A tiny proportion of medical practitioners also experienced life as a patient in an asylum.

Author: Ebun Joseph

With race as a central theme, this book presents racial stratification as the underlying system which accounts for the difference in outcomes of Whites and Blacks in the labour market. Critical race theory (CRT) is employed to discuss the operation, research, maintenance and impact of racial stratification. The power of this book is the innovative use of a stratification framework to expose the pervasiveness of racial inequality in the labour market. It teaches readers how to use CRT to investigate the racial hierarchy and it provides a replicable framework to identify the racial order based on insight from the Irish case. There is a four-stage framework in the book which helps readers understand how migrants navigate the labour market from the point of migration to labour participation. The book also highlights minority agency and how migrants respond to their marginality. The examples of how social acceptance can be applied in managing difference in the workplace are an added bonus for those interested in diversity and inclusion. This book is the first of its kind in Ireland and across Europe to present inequality, racism and discrimination in the labour market from a racial stratification perspective. While this book is based on Irish data, the CRT theoretical approach, as well as its insight into migrant perspectives, poses a strong appeal to scholars of sociology, social justice, politics, intercultural communication and economics with interest in race and ethnicity, critical whiteness and migration. It is a timely contribution to CRT which offers scholars a method to conduct empirical study of racial stratification across different countries bypassing the over-reliance on secondary data. It will also appeal to countries and scholars examining causal racism and how it shapes racial inequality.

Polish and Italian mothers in Norway
Lise Widding Isaksen and Elżbieta Czapka

return to work fulltime. Fathers and mothers are entitled to leave if they need to stay at home when children are unwell. They receive a monthly, universal child benefit and if parents of children between 1 and 2 years prefer family care to public childcare, they are entitled to a monthly cash allowance of 7500 NOK (ca €700). In the majority population, a gender egalitarian family life is a socially recognised ideal. Family policies come with normative expectations that both parents participate in the labour market, share housework and care work

in Intimacy and mobility in an era of hardening borders
Valentin-Veron Toma

-called cottage system proposed by British authors; villages or colonies for the insane, such as the one in Gheel, Belgium; and agricultural farms within or adjoining the mental asylums.32 In 1875, Sutzu published in his Gazette his reflections on the colony for the insane at Gheel.33 He had gained direct experience during his visits abroad and, coupled with the evaluation of arguments for and against the use of the various methods, he used this as a basis for the implementation of new forms of care. In contrast to the Belgian system of family care and the British cottage

in Work, psychiatry and society, c. 1750–2015