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Douglas Morrey
Alison Smith

from her childhood. But family secrets already provide the intrigue in some of Rivette’s 1970s films. In Merry-Go-Round (1978, released 1983), Léo (Maria Schneider) learns that her father’s death in a plane crash may have been faked, whilst in Céline et Julie vont en bateau (1974), the eponymous heroines (Juliet Berto and Dominique Labourier) seek to rescue a young child from the family that is plotting her slow death

in Jacques Rivette
The early horror films of Mario Bava
Reynold Humphries

This chapter analyses four films written and directed by Mario Bava between 1960 and 1966: La Maschera del demonio, La Frusta e il Corpo, Operazione Paura and Sei donne per l'assassino. The first three titles belong to 'the supernatural horror film', the latter to the Italian genre of the giallo. The first point worth noting is that the three examples of 'supernatural horror' are all 'period pieces', set in the nineteenth century, whereas Sei donne per l'assassino is set in the contemporary period. Since he is directing a 'period piece', Bava chooses to concentrate on questions of honour, the family, patriarchy and the selfishness of a power that goes without saying as everyone accepts it. La Frusta e il Corpo extends the notion of submission to take in the male members of the family, but the concomitant notion of adapting for the woman remains intact: now two women are unhappy.

in Monstrous adaptations
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Masculinity and mental illness in Victorian Britain

Out of his Mind is a study of the consequences of a diagnosis of insanity for men, their families, their friends, and the culture at large.

Studying the madman allows for an exploration of the cultural expectations of male behaviour, how men responded to those norms in their lived experiences, and what defined the bare minimums of acceptable male behaviour. Men’s authority in society was rooted in control over dependants within their household and beyond; without that power, the foundation of their manhood was in question. As such, madness touched on a key tenet of nineteenth-century masculinity: control. Building on accounts from sufferers, doctors, government officials, journalists, and novelists, Out of his Mind offers insight into the shifting anxieties surrounding men in mental distress. Exploring everything from wrongful confinement panics, to cultures of shame and stigma, to fears of degeneration, this study makes an important contribution to histories of gender and medicine.

This text puts the madman at the centre of the history of Victorian masculinity and helps us better understand the stigma of men’s mental illness that continues to this day.

Fergus Daly
Garin Dowd

the character Isabel/Isabelle is denied, she being the possible secret progeny of an extra-marital relationship; in this way it could stand for the family secret, therefore, an element so central to the naturalist tradition in late nineteenth-century fiction. Carax in interview himself reminds us that it is suggestive of that which is taboo, and that it could therefore mark the space and time of the incestuous sex between Pierre

in Leos Carax
Family secrets and the Gothic in The Birds of the Innocent Wood and Remembering Light and Stone
Anne Fogarty

the interior self. It also, like many of her works, is preoccupied with the unspoken and the burden created and imposed by family secrets. Amongst its accomplishments is its ability to evoke trailing Gothic effects which are subtly insinuated into the text but remain teasingly open. Haunting is at once a trait of the heroine and of the several families in the novel that all

in Deirdre Madden
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The self-destroying Gothic villain in Pauline Hopkins’ Of One Blood
Bridget M. Marshall

’ novel Of One Blood; or, the Hidden Self , originally serialised in Colored American Magazine , 1902–03 . Of One Blood is difficult to categorise, but many of its features – haunted houses, family secrets, ghosts and incest, just to name a few – indicate its place within the Gothic tradition. Several critics have remarked on its Gothic characteristics: Yogita Goyal describes the novel as having ‘a particularly Gothic twist’ 7 ; Eugenia DeLamotte notes that it is filled with ‘Gothic mysteries’ and provides ‘great Gothic insight’ 8

in Suicide and the Gothic
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The last decade has seen a diffusion of the Gothic across a wide range of cultural sites, a relative explosion of Gothic images and narratives prompting a renewed critical interest in the genre. However, very little sustained attention has been paid to what we might term 'Gothic television' until this point. This book fills this gap by offering an analysis of where and how the genre might be located on British and US television, from the start of television broadcasting to the present day. In this analysis, Gothic television is understood as a domestic form of a genre which is deeply concerned with the domestic, writing stories of unspeakable family secrets and homely trauma large across the television screen. The book begins with a discussion on two divergent strands of Gothic television that developed in the UK during the 1960s and 1970s, charting the emergence of the restrained, suggestive ghost story and the effects-laden, supernatural horror tale. It then focuses on the adaptation of what has been termed 'female Gothic' or 'women's Gothic' novels. The book moves on to discuss two hybrid forms of Gothic drama in the 1960s, the Gothic family sitcoms The Munsters and The Addams Family, and the Gothic soap opera Dark Shadows. Finally, it looks at some recent examples of Gothic television in the United States, starting with a discussion of the long-form serial drama, Twin Peaks, as the initiator of a trend for dark, uncanny drama on North American television.


This book recounts the little-known history of the mixed-race children born to black American servicemen and white British women during the Second World War. Of the three million American soldiers stationed in Britain from 1942 to 1945, about 8 per cent (240,000) were African-American; the latter’s relationships with British women resulted in the birth of an estimated 2,000 babies. The African-American press named these children ‘brown babies’; the British called them ‘half-castes’. Black GIs, in this segregated army, were forbidden to marry their white girlfriends. Up to half of the mothers of these babies, faced with the stigma of illegitimacy and a mixed-race child, gave their children up for adoption. The outcome for these children tended to be long-term residency in children’s homes, sometimes followed by fostering and occasionally adoption, but adoption societies frequently would not take on ‘coloured’ children, who were thought to be ‘too hard to place’. There has been minimal study of these children and the difficulties they faced, such as racism in a (then) very white Britain, lack of family or a clear identity. Accessibly written and illustrated with numerous photographs, this book presents the stories of over forty of these children. While some of the accounts of early childhood are heart-breaking, there are also many uplifting narratives of finding American fathers and gaining a sense of self and of heritage.

A conceptual history 1200–1900

This collection explores how concepts of intellectual or learning disability evolved from a range of influences, gradually developing from earlier and decidedly distinct concepts, including ‘idiocy’ and ‘folly’, which were themselves generated by very specific social and intellectual environments. With essays extending across legal, educational, literary, religious, philosophical, and psychiatric histories, this collection maintains a rigorous distinction between historical and contemporary concepts in demonstrating how intellectual disability and related notions were products of the prevailing social, cultural, and intellectual environments in which they took form, and themselves performed important functions within these environments. Focusing on British and European material from the middle ages to the late nineteenth century, this collection asks ‘How and why did these concepts form?’ ‘How did they connect with one another?’ and ‘What historical circumstances contributed to building these connections?’ While the emphasis is on conceptual history or a history of ideas, these essays also address the consequences of these defining forces for the people who found themselves enclosed by the shifting definitional field.

In the context of French history, matters began to change when - for reasons that cannot be reviewed here - the 'social interpretation' collapsed in the 1970s and the Revolution was re-interpreted as a broad-based struggle against royal 'despotism' rather than as a bourgeois attack upon 'feudal' aristocracy. Far more sympathetic to the Revolution and far more sensitive to context than Furet, Lynn Hunt also made conspiracy a key element in her pioneering analysis of the Revolution's political culture. In this work, she demonstrated how fears of conspiracy, real and imagined, led revolutionaries into an endless search for 'transparency,' that is, the elimination of all guises that counterrevolutionary conspirators might use to undermine the Revolution. The fear of conspiracy underlay the call for persistent demonstrations of patriotic virtue under the Terror, which were intended to allay suspicion of covert dealing with the dark forces of the counter-Revolution. But because patriotism itself had become a conspiratorial mask, professions of civisme carried increasingly less weight, and in the end everyone remained a potential conspirator. Many indeed were the seductions of power, ambition, wealth, and distinction allegedly proffered by Pitt and the Austrian princes, who appeared to have endless resources at their disposal. Their point of leverage was clearly the corruptibility of the human soul, a vulnerability that had been repeatedly underlined in republican polemics and Christian discourse, especially of the Jansenist variety, and had long been associated with the royal court, a public space allegedly devoid of virtue and patriotism.