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The First Aid Nursing Yeomanry in the First World War
Author: Janet Lee

Total war tends to create a situation that falls back on established social and cultural discourses and institutional arrangements at the same time that it provides the opportunity for a shifting and renegotiation of these arrangements. This book explores how the First Aid Nursing Yeomanry (FANY) drew upon, and/or subverted cultural mythologies to make sense of their wartime service. It focuses on this renegotiation of gender and examines seven key themes implicit in this process. The first theme concerns the ways women's military organizations utilized traditional notions of genteel femininity and its accompanying nurturance, cheerfulness and devotion in their promise of service, yet went beyond the parameters of such cultural mythologies. The second focuses on the gendering of military heroism. The third theme addresses the context of female military service in terms of the preparation women received, the opportunities they were given and the risks they took, and focuses on their coping behaviours. Theme four focuses specifically on women's transgression into the masculine terrain of driving and mechanics and shares the ways they developed skills and competencies previously off-limits for women. Such transgressions almost invariably led to women having to negotiate masculine authority and develop skills in autonomy, independence and assertiveness - the focus of theme five. The last two themes discussed in the book address the integration and consolidation of women's organizations as the war progressed and their service became indispensable.

Protestants, politics, and patriarchy in the novels of F. E. Crichton
Naomi Doak

This chapter focuses on the life and literature of Mrs. F. E. Crichton of Belfast. Through close readings of her novella The Precepts of Andy Saul (1908) and her novel The Blind Side of the Heart (1915), this chapter examines the trajectory of Crichton’s career and demonstrates how the intertwined influences of contemporary politics and patriarchy shaped the forces and themes in her fiction. It suggests that the influence of Crichton’s father, Thomas Sinclair (Junior), as well as the increasingly masculine face of Ulster unionism are inextricable from any analysis of Crichton’s novels. A feminist reading of Crichton’s writing suggests that stress-points in her narratives occur where the author is forced to choose between a denouement where female autonomy is a possibility and one in which the political codes of the day must be preserved for the greater good.

in Irish women’s writing, 1878–1922
Peter Hutchings

acknowledging that these elements of female ‘independence’ are ultimately contained by male authority, Auerbach finds these ‘tantalizing images of transformation’ 8 a significant part of Dracula’s appeal. Such moments of female autonomy are clearly snatched from a film which elsewhere, and very systematically, privileges the exercise of male authority. The harsh treatment meted out to the likes of the villainous

in Terence Fisher
Patsy Stoneman

it is done at all’ (Ozick in Gornick and Moran: 435). Miss Jenkyns is thus a sad paradox. Though apparently ‘strongminded’ and ‘superior’ (C: 51), she has assimilated the conditions of her own subordination. Her intellect and her ‘strict code of gentility’ (C: 109) have become a means by which the dead father rules the community of women. The social rules announced in Chapter 1 ‘with all the solemnity with which the old Manx laws were read once a year on the Tinwald Mount’ (40) seem at first to codify female autonomy, but in fact they maintain male

in Elizabeth Gaskell
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Cecily Jones

be simultaneously socially positioned within plantation societies as both victims and agents. Colonial patriarchy was never so unyielding as to deny white female autonomy entirely; the rights of all white women to exercise authority over all black persons was enshrined in colonial law. I argue, then, that the privileges of whiteness simultaneously constrained white women while allowing them the means to counter their

in Engendering whiteness
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Tanya Cheadle

Imagined Corners (1931), Women: An Inquiry (1925), Mrs Grundy in Scotland (1936) and ‘Women in Scotland’ (1936), while Naomi Mitchison often placed women at the heart of her historical fiction, exploring issues around sexual desire, childbearing and female autonomy.31 While none of these authors acknowledged a direct link to Geddes’s ‘Celtic Renascence’, his earlier insistence on the cultural legitimacy of the Scottish voice, of the need for ‘Iona to educate London’ not London to educate Iona, was clearly significant, Murray Pittock and Isla Jack referring to the

in Sexual progressives
Class and Gender in Elizabeth Gaskell’s Work
Patsy Stoneman

the concept of the ‘paraxial’ in fantasy literature). The Mary that Bridget wanted at home, the demure Lucy approved by her father, are only half human, the product of an ideology which denies female autonomy. Bridget loves a child-Mary but rejects her as an adult, projecting her repressed fear of sexuality as a curse. Gisborne uses the sexual Mary, then ‘kills’ her like the spaniel, and raises Lucy to be a child-woman in her turn, projecting his repressed desire as her voluptuous double. The characters within the story see Bridget’s curse as responsible for the

in Elizabeth Gaskell
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Jana Funke

reinforces stereotypes according to which working-class women were often assumed to lack the refined sensibility and intuitive compassion expected of women belonging to the middle classes. ‘The Modern Miss Thompson’ explores other topical questions concerning female autonomy and women’s role in society, but shifts the focus to middle-class femininity. According to Batten’s diary, Hall wrote the short story, which represents her most explicit engagement with the suffrage movement and New Woman politics, in a single day in January 1915. This important story offers fresh

in ‘The World’ and other unpublished works of Radclyffe Hall
The expressive face of Criseyde/ Cressida
Stephanie Trigg

Nestor is, by Cressida’s ‘quick sense’. That quickness, which may first appear as female autonomy and agency is condemned by Ulysses as producing too many meanings. Jill Mann, contrasting Chaucer’s and Shakespeare’s heroines, argues that Shakespeare resolutely flattens his Cressida, denying us all access to her inner life in order to foreground the problem of value in the play: the value attributed to

in Love, history and emotion in Chaucer and Shakespeare
Carrie Tarr

fashionable bikini). But Nathalie Baye’s multiple changes of costume were perceived by some critics as simply reproductions of images from the fashion magazines of the day. Instead of representing female autonomy, female friendship and the rift between husband and wife, as in Coup de foudre , fashion here carries a lesser weight of meaning. Nevertheless, it still serves to highlight ambivalent attitudes towards the mother: when Léna slips into

in Diane Kurys