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From modest shoot to forward plant
Author: Sam George

The stereotype of the forward, sexually precocious female botanist made its first appearance in literature in the turbulent revolutionary climate of the 1790s. The emergence of this figure illustrates both the contemporary appeal, particularly to women, of the Linnaean Sexual System of botanical classification, and the anxieties surrounding female modesty that it provoked. This book explores the cultivation of the female mind and the feminised discourse of botanical literature in eighteenth-century Britain. In particular, it discusses British women's engagement with the Swedish botanist, Carl Linnaeus, and his unsettling discovery of plant sexuality. The book also explores nationality and sexuality debates in relation to botany and charts the appearance of a new literary stereotype, the sexually precocious female botanist. It investigates the cultivation of the female mind and its implications for the theories of the feminised discourse of botanical literature. The book also investigates a process of feminisation of botany in Jean-Jacques Rousseau's and Priscilla Wakefield's letters on botany; these were literary and educational texts addressed specifically to women. Linnaean classification exemplified order, making botany an ideal discipline for young British women in the eighteenth century. Erasmus Darwin's explicit discussion of sexuality related to the aura of illicit sexuality that had surrounded Sir Joseph Banks. Richard Polwhele appropriates Collinsonia's image of the promiscuous female to allude to Mary Wollstonecraft's sexuality, drawing on forward plants in Darwin and Thomas Mathias. The book finally looks at early nineteenth-century debates and demonstrates how scientific botany came into conflict with the craft of floristry.

Murray Pomerance

enthusiastically that the famous shower scene is ‘the most celebrated sequence in all of Hitchcock’s work’ (Rothman, 1982 : 292); Sterritt more precisely that it constitutes ‘the most celebrated montage of Hitchcock’s career’ (Sterritt, 1993 : 108) – is a gender study, not simple violence; a choreography of unprotected female modesty, the victim twisting and vocalising, pointlessly covering her ventrum with

in Monstrous adaptations
Bryan Fanning

cent were distributed throughout the remaining twenty-two counties. All parts of Ireland have experienced immigration. But immigrant experiences and encounters with host communities have by no means been the same in different places. Nine out of the seventeen teenage girls who participated in a 2007–11 study by Orla McGarry of Muslim teenagers in Ballyhaunis wore headscarves to school; three of these were Irish-born. One consequence of the rule of female modesty was that they did not participate in extra-curricular activities with non-Muslim school friends. McGarry

in Are the Irish different?
Leonie Hannan

time I  am sure you cannot call Compliment, for tis a very improper Season, to make Court to a Lady with so bigg a belly as yors.’9 Mary Evelyn informed each of her correspondents frequently that they must curb this tendency, as ‘praise, and flattery shall never long prevaile with me’.10 Behind the references to female modesty, expected of a woman of her time, and the somewhat patronising nature of Bohun’s praise for a female writer who possessed ‘thousands of reall vertues & perfections combin’d, wch singly would make ye happiest of yr Sex’ was a genuinely

in Women of letters
Botany and sexual anxiety in the late eighteenth century
Sam George

system of plants can accord with female modesty, I am not able to comprehend. 2 Opposition to women practising the modern system of botany intensified in the years leading up to the French Revolution and the wars with France when a backlash against the Sexual System occurred, fuelled by anxieties over moral and social disorder and the

in Botany, sexuality and women’s writing 1760–1830
Roman exemplary ethics
Rebecca Langlands

that of pietas , in this case at least. The same unwritten moral imperatives that governed Torquatus’s example – to conduct oneself with pietas and affection towards one’s family members and not to kill outside the battlefield – apply here. However, in Horatius’s case they seem to come into conflict with the imperatives to preserve female modesty and thereby family honour, which motivate his killing of his sister. For other participants in the story, who are asked to decide whether and how Horatius should be

in Rules and ethics
Abstract only
Portraits of the monarch in colonial ritual
Susie Protschky

décolleté (with bare neck and shoulders), the standard dress for European women at gala occasions. 48 Perhaps in deference to Arab Muslim notions of female modesty, Wilhelmina appears in the banner portrait dressed in a chin-high collar, which was typical afternoon dress of the period, not the stuff of state portraits and very different from the effigy used in the street parade. 49 The variance in styles of representation that we see in these two likenesses of Wilhelmina

in Photographic subjects
Towards the making of The Mysteries of Udolpho
Robert Miles

images of those one loves’. These ‘phantasmata’ ‘are the products of refined sentiment, the characteristic projection of a feeling heart. To be haunted, according to the novel’s romantic myth, is to display one’s powers of sympathetic imagination’ (Castle 1987 : 234). But in line with Abraham we may understand the ‘parent’s topography’ to include the myths of genius, of the ‘feeling heart’, of female

in Gothic writing 1750–1820
Contemporary texts, propaganda, and life writing
G. H. Bennett

to the extent that only another WREN would truly be able to understand. Phrases like ‘we had a tremendous time, as we were then 100 WRENs to 10,000 servicemen’, contain a wealth of experience which does not need to be stated. 19 Her ex-WREN readers know precisely what is implied in a phrase constructed to conform to 1940s’ notions of female modesty and chastity. More than

in Gender and warfare in the twentieth century
Lady Anna Miller and Hester Lynch Piozzi
Emma Gleadhill

accompanied this honour. 3 In 1770–71 the couple undertook an eight-month Grand Tour. The time spent living frugally in Italy was intended to reduce living costs while they had an expensive Italianate villa built near Bath. Five years after her travels, Anna became the first woman to publish a Grand Tour account. To appropriately fit the eighteenth-century topos of British female modesty, she published anonymously and framed Letters from Italy as a form of personal correspondence to

in Taking travel home