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Hans Peter Broedel

TMM7 8/30/03 5:37 PM Page 167 7 Witchcraft as an expression of female sexuality That “a greater multitude of witches is found among the weaker sex of women than among men” was so obviously a fact to the authors of the Malleus that, despite scholastic custom, it was completely unnecessary to deduce arguments to the contrary.1 Witches, in their view, were entirely more likely to be women than men. The experience of the next two hundred years appeared to vindicate this judgment. Throughout most of central and western Europe, where witchcraft persecution was

in The Malleus Maleficarum and the construction of witchcraft
David Geiringer

existing knowledge, how did Catholic authorities attempt to measure, interrogate and understand this experience in the 1960s? What intellectual tools and apparatus were used to construct the Church’s image of sexuality, particularly female sexuality, and what can these tools tell us about both Catholic and secular notions of the personal at this historical moment? This chapter addresses these questions

in The Pope and the pill
Criminal Female Sexuality in Bram Stoker‘s Dracula
Beth Shane

This essay considers how Bram Stoker‘s Dracula (1901) engages both contemporary medical models and common-sense conceptions of female criminality and sexuality. From Dracula, the figure of Lucy Westenra emerges as a quintessential femme fatale. Lucys neck bears the characteristic marking of the vampire, but we never witness the bite; as a result, ambiguity surrounds the causal relationship in the process of becoming a vampire. The novel produces this ontological ambiguity to perpetuate and to exacerbate contemporary views regarding the radical instability of female nature. Under this logic, Lucys encounter with the vampire brings only latent impulses to the surface. Stokers narrative exploits this physiological uncertainty to perpetuate the sensational terror that all female sexuality is monstrous, threatening to render the British man a debased specimen of his former glory. By tracking the various logical ellipses and rhetorical slippages which give shape to Stokers female vampires, I demonstrate how Stokers novels enact the same anxious rhetoric that likewise informs the portrait of female sexuality in nineteenth-century sexology.

Gothic Studies
Queering Alien Resurrection
Brenda Boyle

The critical response to Alien Resurrection marked a departure from negative responses to Alien3. Oblivious to the films parting from the trilogys characterization as ‘simultaneously feminist and gynophobic’, some critics remained steadfast to that trope, insisting ‘Ripley is still the same person.’ Critics of the trilogy determined its sub-text to be concerned with gender and reproduction and went on to assert the same of Alien Resurrection. Where the trilogy offered a vision of Ripley,through a heterocentric lens, with blurred but visible divisions between monstrous and human, (and what distinguished them had to do with means of reproduction), AlienResurrection eradicates boundaries so it becomes impossible to determine whether ‘normal’ human or monster, can even exist in this world. The issue of sexuality becomes paramount to the issue of reproduction and gender. In the course of the trilogy, gender is made obsolete; Alien Resurrection finishes the job in rendering terms of sexual normalcy immaterial. The alien queen who has mutated into a parthenogenetically reproducing creature is described as ‘perfect’; what kind of meaning can that sort of reproduction or creature have in a heterocentric world? This world and its inhabitants are beyond heterosexuality, and perhaps beyond sexuality as we know it. Consequently, reconsidering AlienResurrection through a queer lens which inquires into sexuality offers a fuller and more fruitful reading than does one through gender or the biological labyrinth of reproduction.

Gothic Studies
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Mary Robinson and the Gothic
Anne Close

Mary Robinson‘s decision to publish in a notorious genre, the Gothic, drew further attention to her own sexual and moral notoriety. In Hubert de Sevrac, a Romance of the Eighteenth Century (1796) and Memoirs of the Late Mrs. Robinson (1801), she manipulates the publiccs taste for the type of Gothic fiction popularised by Ann Radcliffe and offers the sexually experienced heroine as a counter-ideal to Radcliffe‘s sexually naive characters. These works strategically revise conventional Gothic discourse in order to reassign the cultural significance of active female sexuality to fictional women, and, ultimately, to Robinson herself.

Gothic Studies
Author: Helen Boak

The Weimar Republic, with it fourteen years of turbulent political, economic, social and cultural change, has attracted significant attention from historians primarily because they are seeking to explain the Nazis' accession to power in 1933. This book explores the opportunities and possibilities that the Weimar Republic offered women and presents a comprehensive survey of women in the economy, politics and society of the Weimar Republic. The Republic was a post-war society, and hence, the book offers an understanding of the significant impact that the First World War had on women and their roles in the Weimar Republic. The book also explores to what extent the Weimar Republic was 'an open space of multiple developmental opportunities' for women and considers the changes in women's roles, status and behavior during the Republic. It discusses women's participation in Weimar politics, as voters, elected representatives, members of political parties and targets of their propaganda, and as political activists outside the parliamentary arena. The book investigates the impact, if any, on women's employment of the two major economic crises of the Republic, the hyperinflation of 1922-23 and the Depression in the early 1930s. It describes the woman's role within the family, primarily as wife and mother, the impact of the changes in family and population policy and attitudes towards female sexuality. The Weimar Republic also witnessed significant changes in women's lives outside the home as they accessed the public realm to pursue a variety of interests.

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Leanne McCormick

Conclusion Female sexuality in Northern Ireland during the twentieth century was regulated in a variety of formal and informal ways. The techniques employed and the attitudes towards female sexuality were not only driven by gender and class, but influenced by the wider political, social and religious situation in Northern Ireland. All sections of the community in Northern Ireland based much of their identity upon the maintenance of high moral standards, particularly with regard to female behaviour. While Northern Ireland had a majority Protestant government

in Regulating sexuality
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Leanne McCormick

general and women’s history in particular. There has, however, been a partial move to redress this disparity and there appears to be a growing recognition of the need to investigate the lives of Northern Irish women as a distinct entity.3 This book aims to further develop this by considering some of the ways in which female sexuality was regulated in Northern Ireland in the twentieth century, including the experiences of women involved in prostitution, who lived in rescue homes, and were suspected of having VD, as well as those who interacted with US troops and accessed

in Regulating sexuality
Irigaray and psychoanalytic theory
Hanneke Canters and Grace M. Jantzen

’s theory of the development of sexuality 34 In ‘Female Sexuality’, first published in 1931, Freud argues that boys and girls develop along the same lines until their third year. Not content with this account, Freud returned to the issue of female sexuality two years later. In his ‘Lecture 33 on Femininity’ he explains that it is with the Oedipus complex that the ways of the boy and the girl diverge. It becomes clear, Freud maintains, that the development of a little girl into a normal woman is ‘more difficult and more complicated’ than the development of a little boy

in Forever fluid
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Lynn Abrams

myth and materiality in a woman’s world 6 Sexualities [Shetland women] are modest virgins, and virtuous wives: for adultery is not known among them. Among the common sort fornication sometimes happens; but their constancy is such, that they are sure to marry one among another. (Capt. Thomas Preston, 12 May 1744, quoted in Thomas Gifford, An Historical Description of the Zetland Islands, p. 104) n the nineteenth century, official conceptions of moral order were largely equated with female sexuality. A moral society was one in which women’s bodies were

in Myth and materiality in a woman’s world