Author: Tim Allender

This book examines how the identities of women and girls in colonial India were shaped by interaction with each other, a masculine raj and feminist and non-feminist philanthropists situated mostly outside India. These identities were determined by the emotional and sexual needs of men, racial hybridity, mission and religious orders, European accomplishments mentalities, restricted teacher professionalism and far more expansive medical care interaction. This powerful vista is viewed mostly through the imagery of feminine sensibility rather than feminism as the most consistent but changing terrain of self-actualisation and dispute over the long time period of the book. National, international and colonial networks of interaction could build vibrant colonial, female identities, while just as easily creating dystopias of female exploitation and abuse. These networks were different in each period under study in the book, emerging and withering away as the interplay of state imperatives and female domesticity, professionalism and piety changed over time. Based on extensive archival work in many countries, the book provides important context for studies of late nineteenth and early twentieth-century colonial women in many colonial domains. The book also explains why colonial mentalities regarding females in India were so different to those on the nationalist side of the story in the early twentieth-century. This was even when feminist discourse was offered by a failing raj to claim new modernity after World War One and when key women activists in India chose, instead, to cross over to occupy spaces of Indian asceticism and community living.

Elisabeth Bronfen

femininity. As Hélène Cixous notes, death is always at work in the construction of this conflict-ridden opposition, ‘for meaning only gets constituted in a movement in which one of the terms of the couple is destroyed in favour of the other’. 1 At the same time, the fear of death translates into a fear of Woman, who, for man, is death. She is constructed as the place of mystery

in Over her dead body
Women in the public asylums, 1860s-1900s
Catharine Coleborne

patient case records. It uses gender as a category of analysis to explore the function and representation of ethnicity, at the same time finding out more about constructions and expectations of femininity for nineteenth-century women inmates and those around them, through both quantitative and qualitative evidence. Read together, these two chapters show gender in relationship and tease out some of the

in Insanity, identity and empire
Catherine Deneuve and 1970s political culture
Bridget Birchall

established cinematic femininity, but whose symbolic function lay primarily in the realm of the national. As the twin poles of mature heritage performance in the 1980s, Deneuve and Depardieu show interesting differences in the nature of their stardom. On the one hand, his incarnation of literary and historical figures such as Balzac’s Le Colonel Chabert, Pagnol’s Jean de Florette, Rostand’s Cyrano de Bergerac and Auguste Rodin in

in From perversion to purity
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Learning femininity in colonial India, 1820–1932
Tim Allender

subcontinent in educational contexts is examined later in this book. It is certainly the case that, at least by the First World War, there was a strong feminist consciousness among the female Indian literati in the Hindu provinces. 11 My approach in this book is primarily concerned with Western perspectives about femininity (rather than feminism) in tracing the agency of Western women and Westernised women in

in Learning femininity in colonial India, 1820–1932
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A new professional learning space, 1865–90
Tim Allender

Colonial responses to the emergence of the female medical carer turned out to be a radical departure from those constructed by the state for the female teacher. By the late nineteenth century, traces of the official discourses concerning the femininity and morality of women physicians and nurses are apparent, which had earlier directed the state modus operandi regarding

in Learning femininity in colonial India, 1820–1932
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Tim Allender

‘Learning femininity’ in colonial India is one of the simplest and least aggressive phrases that might be used to describe any part of the imperial project. The raj’s official rhetorical repertoire intentionally promoted ‘female education’ as a soft and consistent moral purpose that could only improve the ‘condition’ of women in India. As this book demonstrates

in Learning femininity in colonial India, 1820–1932
Feminine and feminist educators and thresholds of Indian female interaction, 1870–1932
Tim Allender

. There were also liminal, or Indian threshold responses, to Western femininity values at the turn of the twentieth century that seemed to renegotiate at least some of the colonial influence from abroad. Gandhi’s question, unwittingly perhaps, touched on the broad socio-cultural issues that sociologists such as Pierre Bourdieu and sociolinguistics such as Basil Bernstein later considered

in Learning femininity in colonial India, 1820–1932
Tim Allender

contributed to Hindu manliness. 77 These philosophies were not based on notions of Indian femininity, and certainly not those from the West. Instead, as Watt argues, north Indian associational life, in particular, mediated social servants by creating separate Indian cross-caste, cross-class and trans-regional solidarities. These solidarities, in turn, gifted to Indian women, as a side benefit, greater access to participate in

in Learning femininity in colonial India, 1820–1932
Kimberly Lamm

5 Rewriting maternal femininity in Mary Kelly’s Post-Partum Document ‘[L]ittle girls are told their future is caring for people … ’ Sheila Rowbotham in Nightcleaners (1975)1 Post-Partum Document is an archive of objects that represent the pleasures Kelly’s maternal figure takes in caring for her child: infant clothing; soiled nappies; scribbled drawings; words, dialogues, and stories; letters and typesetting materials; pieces of blankets; and small gifts the child found in nature. These objects are marked by imminent losses, however, making the mother

in Addressing the other woman