Democratization is a major political phenomenon of the age and has been the focus of a burgeoning political science literature. This book considers democratization across a range of disciplines, from anthropology and economics, to sociology, law and area studies. The construction of democratization as a unit of study reflects the intellectual standpoint of the inquirer. The book highlights the use of normative argument to legitimize the exercise of power. From the 1950s to the 1980s, economic success enabled the authoritarian governments of South Korea and Taiwan to achieve a large measure of popular support despite the absence of democracy. The book outlines what a feminist framework might be and analyses feminist engagements with the theory and practice of democratization. It also shows how historians have contributed to the understanding of the processes of democratization. International Political Economy (IPE) has always had the potential to cut across the levels-of-analysis distinction. A legal perspective on democratization is presented by focusing on a tightly linked set of issues straddling the border between political and judicial power as they have arisen. Classic and contemporary sociological approaches to understanding democracy and democratization are highlighted, with particular attention being accorded to the post-1989 period. The book displays particularities within a common concern for institutional structures and their performance, ranging over the representation of women, electoral systems and constitutions (in Africa) and presidentialism (in Latin America). Both Europe and North America present in their different ways a kind of bridge between domestic and international dimensions of democratization.
shirin m. rai
In order to explore feminist perspectives on democratization we need to understand both feministframeworks and
methodologies. This chapter outlines what a feministframework might be and then uses this perspective to analyse
feminist engagements with the theory and practice of
Democratization can be defined as the process of ‘making democratic’ regimes, practices and discourses of public
power. Luckham and White (1996b: 2–8) have identified
four areas of inquiry for democratization analysts: (1
a group influenced by second-wave feminism. This discourse, which implies a
belief in political agency, and is part of the film’s
self-presentation, is again exceeded, in this case by thematic and aesthetic
shifts towards the postmodern, which problematise notions of testimonial
authenticity and agency supposed by the feministframework. The film is also
a meditation on, and a response to, debates on female spectatorship within
leisure, gender and
sexuality’, Leisure Studies 18, 1: 19–39.
Allen, J. (1993) ‘Motherhood, the annihilation of women’, in A. M. Jaggar and P. S.
Rothenberg (eds), FeministFrameworks. Third edition. New York: McGraw-Hill,
Bavinton, N. (2007) ‘From obstacle to opportunity: leisure and the reinterpretation of
constraints’, Annals of Leisure Research 10, 3/4: 391–412.
Brey, E. T. and Lehto, X. Y. (2007) ‘The relationship between daily and vacation activities’, Annals of Tourism Research 34, 1: 160–80.
Central Statistics Office (CSO) (2007) Tourism Trends
’ body parts as either oppressive
for women or misrepresentative of ‘real’ women’s autonomous
sexual desires and ‘real’ men’s corporeal experiences.
In her study of women’s domestic consumption of erotica and
porn, Juffer (1998) shifts her focus away from what she perceives
to be this dominant oppressive and/or utopic feministframework
for interpreting porn. She argues that such a shift is warranted
since feminist interpretations of porn as either oppressive or
transgressive are rhetorical in the sense that they then require
further academic intervention:
Moving from trauma to witness in the nightmares of Bronx Gothic
patriarchy’ ( 1981 ), Black girls’ and women’s
stories absolutely matter. As white women, we understand that these are
not our stories; in this chapter, we use a Black intersectional feministframework to address the complexities of race and gender with regard to
trauma, dreams and nightmares. To ignore our positionality outright would
be to ignore the ways in which we are shaped by white supremacist
feminist magazine Sorcières and in
1974 she published Les Parleuses, a series of talks with Xavière
Gauthier about her novels and films, set in a feministframework. Duras’s
feminism thus exerted its influence through her ideas, expressed in her
work, rather than through active political militancy.
However, this ambivalent attitude to both Communist and
feminist politics was by no means the only contradiction discernible in the
–1914 did. Within
their ‘imperial feminist’ framework, as Antoinette
Burton has pointed out, it was possible for campaigners to expose
the oppression of women in the West while simultaneously
representing Western women as liberated in comparison to their
victimised sisters in Africa or India. British women would be the
first women in the world to be emancipated; having won their own
a feministframework. The dominant red colour of this scene recurs in Grandmother Moorhead's Aromatic Kitchen (1975), another kitchen picture, this time featuring a giant goose as the matriarchal authority figure, one that Warner reminds us represents the fairy-tale preparations, gossip, and yarn-telling long associated with groups of women.
Again, Carrington's uncompromising feminism becomes intrinsic to understanding her work and world-view that has, in turn, shaped so many others.
feminists themselves began to publish and read more specifically Irish material.
Nonetheless, Conroy’s assessment of the lack of available Irish publications contextualises the impact of ideas such as those of Adrienne Rich,
along with a range of other international feminist writers and activists, on
the thinking and praxis of Irish feminists during the period. The influence
of international feministframeworks at local level is apparent in the language and politics of early Irish lesbian activists. One example of this is the
response of Mary Dorcey (one of the first