Kriston R. Rennie

interacted with existing ecclesiastical and political structures. 9 Understanding its influence thus means engaging on some level with historical theories on ‘feudalism’, ‘feudal anarchy’, and ‘feudal revolution’, appreciating them for the legacies and paradigms they have bequeathed. 10 These inescapable constructions both inform and frame the ongoing historical debate. According to Kassius Hallinger’s classic but now largely refuted argument, the Cluniacs were determined to ‘strip off the fetters of episcopal feudalism’. 11 They mounted what he called a ‘frontal

in Freedom and protection
Nation, History, Gender
James Watt

This essay discusses the ways in which different models of historical and social development, and especially of the relationship of the Gothic past to the present, might be seen to structure – and help us now to interpret – eighteenth-century Gothic fiction. It begins with an account of the representation of ‘Gothick days’ in James Beattie‘s poem The Minstrel (1771–4), and then gives an overview of how‘ Scottish’ conjectural histories attributed a pivotal modernizing role to feudalism and chivalry, in some cases defining an exceptional Gothic legacy with particular reference to the agency and influence of women. The essay concludes by suggesting that critical attention to different accounts of social development, and contemporary ‘histories of women’, might help to provide a better literary-historical map of eighteenth-century Gothic fiction, and a richer sense of the cultural and political work that that fiction may have performed.

Gothic Studies
Open Access (free)
Governing Precarity through Adaptive Design
Mark Duffield

between Food Aid and Governance in Sudan ’ ( PhD thesis, School of Sociology, Politics and International Studies (SPAIS), Unversity of Bristol ). Joshi , D. ( 2017 ), ‘ Why Robots Will Kill Middle Incomes ’, European Investment Strategy: Special Report , 10 August ( Montreal and London : BCA Research ). Laclau , E. ( 1971 ), ‘ Feudalism and Capitalism in Latin America ’, New Left Review , 67 , 19 – 38 . Latour , B. ( 2004 ), ‘ Why Has Critique Run Out of Steam? From Matters of Fact to

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Essays in honour of Susan Reynolds

This book is dedicated to Susan Reynolds and celebrates the work of a scholar whose views have been central to reappraisals of the position of the laity in the Middle Ages. The themes and concerns include a medieval world in which the activity and attitudes of the laity are not obscured by ideas expressed more systematically in theoretical treatises by ecclesiastics; a world in which lay collective action and thought take centre stage. Reynolds has written her own Middle Ages, especially in her innovative book Kingdoms and Communities whose influence can be seen in so many of the essays. Collectivities, solidarities and collective action are everywhere in these essays, as Reynolds has shown us to expect them to be. Collective action was carried out often in pursuit of social peace, but it existed precisely because there was discord. Of the narratives and interpretative frameworks with which Reynolds's work has been concerned, the book has least to say directly on the debate over feudalism. The book engages many of the themes of Reynolds's work and pursues some of the issues which are prominent in re-examinations of the medieval world and in studies of the medieval laity. It discusses secular aristocratic attitudes towards judicial combat within the broader setting of fictional 'treason trials' of the later twelfth century. Although kinship did not start out as an explicit and overt theme of the book, it emerges as a leitmotiv, perhaps in part because when feudalism is removed, kinship is thrown into sharper relief.

Abstract only
The Ulster Volunteer Force, 1910–22
Author: Timothy Bowman

The Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) remains something of a forgotten army of the Irish revolutionary period. There has also been a tendency for historians of opposition to Home Rule to view the UVF as little more than a supporting cast to the Unionists stars: Sir Edward Carson and Andrew Bonar Law. In traditional Unionist accounts of the Third Home Rule crisis, militancy was a measured and controlled response by Ulster Unionists to the actions of the Liberal government. The book considers the social composition and political ideology of the UVF. The command structures of the UVF and the force's military efficiency are discussed next. Many of the early manifestations of Ulster Unionist militancy occurred outside the formal structures of the Orange Order and Unionist Clubs. The earliest forms of armed Unionism during the 1910-1914 period took a similar form and, indeed, this neo-feudalism was to survive in the UVF proper between 1913 and 1914. The command of the UVF, while theoretically a standard military hierarchy, was in reality anything but that. The military efficiency units differed significantly over time and region. Unionist propaganda was aimed at four different audiences: Ulster Unionists themselves, British public opinion, the Liberal government and Nationalist Ireland. The book then covers the related issues of finance, arms and equipment. The contribution of the UVF to the 36th (Ulster) Division is then dealt with. Finally, it considers the brief revival of the UVF in 1920 and its amalgamation into the Ulster Special Constabulary.

Paul Blackledge

the nature of the transition from feudalism to capitalism, has been articulated most famously in two influential exchanges: that between Dobb, Sweezy and others in the 1950s; and in the so called Brenner debate that flared up some two decades later. Given that Marxism evolved, centrally, as an attempt to understand the laws of motion of capitalism, it was only natural that Marxist historiography tended, from Capital onwards, to focus on this issue. Accordingly, it is with a discussion of the various contributions to this debate that this chapter focuses. Nonetheless

in Reflections on the Marxist theory of history
Simon Walker

The precise connection between ‘bastard feudalism,’ the characteristic form of aristocratic social organization in later medieval England, and the disordered condition of English politics in the later Middle Ages has long been a subject for debate among historians. While earlier writers had no doubt that the emergence of magnate affinities – bands of men bound to a lord by an indenture of retainer and a money fee rather than by a heritable fief in land – in the early fourteenth century had destructive consequences for the quality of public order, their

in Political culture in later medieval England
Pauline Stafford

his army. That army, now largely a cavalry force, then had the resources to beat the Arabs. In the process of taking land and leasing it out again in return for military service, performed by mounted warriors, ‘feudalism’ was born, and ‘feudalism’ would transform European society. 4 Historians have seen the period as a watershed in other ways too. It was the period in which much of Germany was converted to Christianity and brought within the fold of mainstream European culture. And it was, of course, Charles Martel who laid the foundations for the rule of the

in Law, laity and solidarities
Abstract only
G. L. Harriss

When Simon Walker began researching the retinue of John of Gaunt in 1980, ‘bastard feudalism’ had been the subject of debate for thirty-five years. Beginning with the printing and analysis of indentures of retainer by N. B. Lewis, K. B. McFarlane and W. H. Dunham, controversy had centred on whether its mercenary character loosened feudal loyalties, encouraged lawlessness and corruption, and destabilised the polity to the point of civil war. As studies of individual retinues and the political structures of different counties began to appear in the 1970s, bastard

in Political culture in later medieval England
Paul Blackledge

the transition from feudalism to capitalism: Marx conceived the likely prospects for India’s peasantry as paralleling those experienced by the European peasantry a few centuries earlier. Accordingly, far from being an apologist for capitalist progress, Marx understood the immediate situation of the Indian peasantry to be ‘tragic’.96 He concluded ‘The Future Results of British Rule in India’ with the observation that the condition of the Indian peasantry paralleled that of all other exploited and oppressed classes through history, and that nineteenth

in Reflections on the Marxist theory of history