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A General Model of Visual Aesthetics
Torben Grodal

This article argues that the central dimensions of film aesthetics may be explained by a general theory of viewer psychology, the PECMA flow model. The PECMA flow model explains how the film experience is shaped by the brain‘s architecture and the operation of different cognitive systems; the model describes how the experience is based on a mental flow from perception, through emotional activation and cognitive processing, to motor action. The article uses the flow model to account for a variety of aesthetic phenomena, including the reality-status of films, the difference between narrative and lyrical-associative film forms, and the notion of ‘excess’.

Film Studies
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Sound, signification and materiality
Andy Birtwistle

film, emotion and genre, characterises the ‘affective life’ as ‘the life of feeling’ (Carroll, 2006: 217). Carroll suggests that affect comprises a range of phenomena – including automatic reactions (e.g., the startle response) and phobic and sexual responses – in addition to those responses we might more readily identify as emotion (fear, anger, sorrow, etc.) (Carroll, 2006 : 217-218). Within the framework he provides for

in Cinesonica
Richard Farmer

them more intensely. ‘Film, emotion, and genre’, in Carl Plantinga and Greg M. Smith (eds), Passionate Views: Film, Cognition, and Emotion (Baltimore and London: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1999), p. 30. 80 Richard Dyer discusses this in ‘Entertainment and utopia’, in Bill Nichols (ed.), Movies and Methods: Volume II (London: University of California Press, 1985), p. 223. 81 Elizabeth Bowen, ‘Why I go to the cinema’, in Charles Davy (ed.), Footnotes to the Film (London: Lovat Dickson, 1938), pp. 207–8. 82 Margaret Butler, Film and Community in Britain and

in Cinemas and cinemagoing in wartime Britain, 1939–45
Andrew Klevan

Aesthetic evaluation and film Emotion qualities: ‘sad, angry, joyful, serene’ [the film is sad, the film is angry]. Evocative qualities: ‘powerful, stirring, amusing’. Behavioural qualities: ‘sluggish, bouncy, jaunty’. Representational qualities: ‘realistic, distorted, true to life’. Second order perceptual qualities: ‘vivid, dull, muted, steely, mellow (said of colours or tones)’. Historically related qualities: ‘derivative, original, daring, bold, conservative’ (1998: 17). Many qualities are explicitly evaluative. Some of them appear to be nonevaluative, and merely

in Aesthetic evaluation and film