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This book provides an introduction to how the Länder (the sixteen states of Germany) function, not only within the country itself, but also within the wider context of Europe's political affairs. It looks at the Länder in the constitutional order of the country, as well as their political and administrative systems, and also discusses their organisation and administration, together with their financial administration. Finally, the book looks at the role of political parties and elections in the Länder, and considers the importance of their parliaments.

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The financialisation of Ireland and the roots of austerity
Conor McCabe

policy the influence of administration – and in particular financial administration – is out of proportion to that sector’s size and population within Irish society. In the repeated defence by politicians and professionals of Ireland’s ‘sacrosanct’ corporation tax rate and tax haven status, the lack of proper investigation and prosecution regarding the financial industry, the long history of outright criminality regarding tax, finance and banking involving the highest echelons of the political system – we are witnessing an indigenous Irish class using the state to

in Ireland under austerity
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This volume discusses the history, culture and social conditions of one of the less well-known periods of ancient Egypt, the Saite or 26th Dynasty (664–525 BC). In the 660s BC Egypt was a politically fragmented and occupied country. This is an account of how Psamtek I, a local ruler from Sais in northern Egypt, declared independence from its overlord, the Assyrian Empire, and within ten years brought about the reunification of the country after almost four hundred years of disunity and periods of foreign domination. Over the next century and a half, the Saite rulers were able to achieve stability and preserve Egypt’s independence as a sovereign state against powerful foreign adversaries. Central government was established, a complex financial administration was developed and Egypt’s military forces were reorganised. The Saites successfully promoted foreign trade, peoples from different countries settled in Egypt and Egypt recovered a prominent role in the Mediterranean world. There were innovations in culture, religion and technology, and Egypt became prosperous. This era was a high-achieving one and is often neglected in the literature devoted to ancient Egypt. Egypt of the Saite Pharaohs, 664–525 BC reveals the dynamic nature of the period, the astuteness of the Saite rulers and their considerable achievements in the political, economic, administrative and cultural spheres.

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Feudalism, venality, and revolution is about the political and social order revealed by the monarchy’s most ambitious effort to reform its institutions, the introduction of participatory assemblies at all levels of the government. It should draw the attention of anyone interested in the sort of social and political conditions that predisposed people to make the French Revolution. In particular, according to Alexis de Tocqueville’s influential work on the Old Regime and the French Revolution, royal centralization had so weakened the feudal power of the nobles that their remaining privileges became glaringly intolerable to commoners. Feudalism, venality, and revolution challenges this theory by showing that when Louis XVI convened assemblies of landowners in the late 1770s and 1780s to discuss policies needed to resolve the budgetary crisis, he faced widespread opposition from lords and office holders. These elites regarded the assemblies as a challenge to their hereditary power over commoners. The monarchy incorporated an administration of seigneurial jurisdictions and venal offices. Lordships and offices upheld inequality on behalf of the nobility and bred the discontent evident in the French Revolution. These findings will alter the way scholars think about the Old Regime society and state and should therefore find a large market among graduate students and professors of European history.

State, market, and the Party in China’s financial reform
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Over more than thirty years of reform and opening, the Chinese Communist Party has pursued the gradual marketization of China’s economy alongside the preservation of a resiliently authoritarian political system, defying long-standing predictions that ‘transition’ to a market economy would catalyse deeper political transformation. In an era of deepening synergy between authoritarian politics and finance capitalism, Communists constructing capitalism offers a novel and important perspective on this central dilemma of contemporary Chinese development. This book challenges existing state–market paradigms of political economy and reveals the Eurocentric assumptions of liberal scepticism towards Chinese authoritarian resilience. It works with an alternative conceptual vocabulary for analysing the political economy of financial development as both the management and exploitation of socio-economic uncertainty. Drawing upon extensive fieldwork and over sixty interviews with policymakers, bankers, and former party and state officials, the book delves into the role of China’s state-owned banking system since 1989. It shows how political control over capital has been central to China’s experience of capitalist development, enabling both rapid economic growth whilst preserving macroeconomic and political stability. Communists constructing capitalism will be of academic interest to scholars and graduate students in the fields of Chinese studies, social studies of finance, and international and comparative political economy. Beyond academia, it will be essential reading for anyone interested in the evolution of Chinese capitalism and its implications for an increasingly central issue in contemporary global politics: the financial foundations of illiberal capitalism.

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Fort Royal as a perennial construction site on Martinique
Benjamin Steiner

organization of the workforce, the payment of slaves owned by the island's inhabitants, the defection of slaves and indentured servants ( marrons ), the sustainability of the construction works, and, most frequently discussed in more detail, the financial administration of funds for the building projects. 1 The work to restore Fort Royal after the battle of 1674 progressed slowly and faced several obstacles. On 22 June 1675, a year after the attack, de Baas wrote in a letter to Colbert

in Building the French empire, 1600–1800
Imperial governance, the Transvaal Crisis and the anxieties of Liberal rhetoric on empire
Simon Mackley

values with the assumption of imperial control over the Empire’s subject populations. 15 In a similar vein, P.J. Cain has explored the relationship between concepts of character and good government in terms of the rationale for the financial administration of Egypt. 16 However, what is notable in terms of the use of good governance with regards to the Transvaal Crisis was that in Liberal

in Rhetorics of empire
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Sally Mayall Brasher

at least twenty-three extant documents from between 1255 and 1430 that list extensive activity in the management of land assets for the hospital including six that describe sales of land. 35 One document among the forty-five dealing with financial administration for the Ospedale S. Maria di Nesso, also in Como, illustrates the sophistication of such transactions. The hospital's procuratore made an investment of five years in a building and mill with an annual fee of 24 denari to be collected for the benefit of the hospital. 36 City

in Hospitals and charity
Laura Cahillane

3 Consideration by the government of the three Drafts Introduction On presenting the Drafts to the Provisional Government for consideration, Figgis also included an accompanying covering letter. In the letter, he explained that the Committee had heard witnesses in relation to electoral practice, financial administration and the differences between the British and French systems. He thanked Professors Bastable and Oldham, Mr Waterfield of the British Treasury in Ireland and Mr Humphreys of the PR Society of Britain for their help with these matters. He also

in Drafting the Irish Free State Constitution
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opposition needed justification by law, precedent and legitimation all saw significant development. Edward I’s new revenues were consolidated under Edward II; financial administration was improved; the increasing frequency of parliament brought in its wake more regular procedures and the growing importance of the commons. The strong need for legitimisation of actions encouraged public statements and sometimes

in The reign of Edward II, 1307–27