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Historical International Relations and the environment
Kerry Goettlich

principle and claim exclusive fishing areas. The current territorialisation of the ocean, then, is to a significant degree an outcome of human interactions with fish. By devoting attention in new ways to the international politics of human–environment relations, the chapter also engages with the themes for studying the ocean put forward in this volume’s introduction (de Carvalho and Leira, 2022

in The Sea and International Relations
Sean Healy
Victoria Russell

. ‘Collusion with people smugglers’, ‘trafficking’, and ‘being complicit’ implies criminal intent on the part of the rescuers. It implies a conspiracy. The Conspiracies The ‘first reported case’ cited by Frontex (2016) concerned an incident in which a small Libyan-flagged fishing boat handed two individuals to a rescue vessel, the Minden . The Frontex report claimed that this fishing boat contained people

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Why Building Back Better Means More than Structural Safety
Bill Flinn

ago in 2013, Typhoon Haiyan caused a storm surge in the neighbourhood that was several metres high, topping the roofs of their timber and nipa (thatch) homes. The resulting damage is not counted in terms of houses destroyed or damaged: it is described by the residents as a ‘washout’. Just the concrete floor slab was left, with debris scattered far and wide. Many died, and everyone else has a graphic survival story 7 . The residents of the barangays have lived there for decades. They are the city’s poorest population relying on fishing, pedicab (rickshaw

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Shetland 1800–2000

This book is about the relationship between myth-making and historical materiality. It is a singular case study of the position and experience of women in a 'peripheral' society distanced - geographically, economically and culturally - from the British mainland. The book first looks at women and gender relations in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries through examination of the construction of historical myth. It then looks at economic and demographic factors that underpinned the materiality of women's dominance of culture. An understanding of women's work patterns and experiences is central to any analysis of women's lives in Shetland and the gender relations contingent upon this. Shetland women were autonomous, independent workers whose day-to-day productive experiences implicated them in all sorts of social and economic relationships outside the home. The book argues that women's culture in Shetland actually had only a marginal connection to the islands' dominant economic activity - fishing. It also argues that the negligible figures for children born outside wedlock are a poor guide to understanding the moral order in nineteenth-century Shetland. Like the new visitors to Shetland, the historians of the early twenty-first century would ordinarily reach the same conclusions. They would do so, at root, because the authors are equipped with the same myth system of discourse about what constitutes women's subordination and power. The book seeks to navigate the issue of 'power' by approaching it in terms which the Shetland woman understood in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.

‘Working the ground’ in Scotland

Ethnographies of labour at sea must examine the experience of that labour, rather than contemplate the commodities that are produced, or resort to trite metaphors about watery 'flow' and 'immersion' This book takes up a labour-centred Marxist approach to human-environment relations, place and language, human-machine relations, technique and technology, political economy and violence. It explores how fishers make the sea productive through their labour, using technologies ranging from wooden boats to digital GPS plotters to create familiar places in a seemingly hostile environment. While most analyses of navigation assume that its purpose is orientation, virtually all navigation devices are used in techniques to solve the problem of relative position. Fishers frequently have to make impossible choices between safe seamanship and staying afloat economically, and the book describes the human impact of the high rate of deaths in the fishing industry. The lives of fishermen are affected by capitalist forces in the markets they sell to, forces that shape even the relations between fishers on the same boat. The book also discusses techniques people used to extend their bodies and perceptual abilities, the importance of controlling and delicately manipulating these extensions and the caring relationships of maintenance boats and machines required. A 'new anthropology of labour' and a 'decolonised anthropology dispenses with the disciplinary emphasis on the "outside" of capitalism and encompasses the dynamism and interconnections of global society'.

Opportunity or exile?

Emigration from Scotland has always been very high. However, emigration from Scotland between the wars surpassed all records; more people emigrated than were born, leading to an overall population decline. This book examines emigration in the years between the two world wars of the twentieth century. Although personal persuasion remained the key factor in stimulating emigration, professional and semi-professional agents also played a vital part in generating and directing the exodus between the wars. Throughout and beyond the nineteenth century Scottish emigration was, in the public mind and public print, largely synonymous with an unwilling exodus from the highlands and islands. The book investigates the extent to which attitudes towards state-aided colonization from the highlands in the 1920s were shaped by the earlier experiences of highlanders and governments alike. It lays particular emphasis on changing and continuing perceptions of overseas settlement, the influence of agents and disparities between expectations and experiences. The book presents a survey of the exodus from lowland Scotland's fishing, farming and urbanindustrial communities that evaluates the validity of negative claims about the emigrants' motives vis-a-vis the well-publicized inducements offered through both official and informal channels. It scrutinizes the emigrants' expectations and experiences of continuity and change against the backdrop of over a century of large-scale emigration and, more specifically, of new initiatives spawned by the Empire Settlement Act. Barnardo's Homes was the first organization to resume migration work after the war, and the Canadian government supervision was extended from poor-law children to all unaccompanied juvenile migrants.

The difference political economy makes
Penny McCall Howard

153 5 ‘You just can’t get a price’ The difference political economy makes As I made dinner, typed up notes and did bits of boat maintenance on board in the evenings, I would often leave the VHF radio on. Fishing skippers monitored VHF channel 13 and expected others to do the same, using it to call each other, listen in, and to broadcast information to the fleet. A conversation one evening between the skippers of two scallop draggers illustrated the strong and potentially devastating effects that fluctuating commodity prices have on fishers: Donnie: Did you

in Environment, labour and capitalism at sea
Penny McCall Howard

, and there was always good craic in the bar. Lachie went out mackerel fishing most summer evenings in his small open motorboat, distributing his catch in plastic shopping bags to various regulars and visitors, and boiling up the mackerel and salt herring with potatoes to share with people at the bar. Fishing skippers coming in for a drink would often bring Lachie a few extra fish, a gesture that was usually repaid with a free pint of lager or a dram of whisky. One long and beautiful evening in late July, I joined Lachie on one of his fishing trips. After stopping the

in Environment, labour and capitalism at sea

Introduction Fishing is the oldest human use of the sea; and for many coastal communities today fishing, and the industries dependent on it (such as boat building, fish processing and retail) constitute a major economic activity. Since time immemorial fish from the sea has been an important source of food, first for those living by the coast and then, with the development

in The law of the sea
Abstract only
Penny McCall Howard

1 1 Introduction I ate my breakfast outside in the bright morning stillness of summer in Scotland, examining the fishing boats around me, which were perfectly reflected in the water of this cosy harbour. The engine of each pickup truck echoed off the rocks surrounding the harbour with precision as men arrived down to the boat ramp to start their working day. I rowed ashore from the small sailboat I lived on to wait for DJ.1 He greeted me with some surprise, and warmth, and agreed to take me out on the small creel boat2 he usually worked on by himself around the

in Environment, labour and capitalism at sea