Author: Sagarika Dutt

This book looks at India in the context of a globalized world. It starts by looking at the history of Indian civilization, exploring the roots of Indian identity and highlighting processes such as foreign invasions, foreign trade, cultural imperialism, colonial rule and the growth of Indian nationalism. The founding fathers wanted India to be a liberal democracy and the values enshrined in the constitution were expected to form the basis of a society more in tune with the modern world. The book examines the gradual democratization of Indian politics. Cultural and ethnic divisions in Indian society are examined in depth, as are the problems that have prevented economic development and stood in the way of economic liberalization. The history of India's integration into the global economy is considered, and the opportunities available to the country in the early years of the twenty-first century are detailed. Alternative approaches to the development of the country, such as those put forward by Gandhi, are discussed, and the final chapters consider the Indian government's perception of the Indian diaspora, as well as the changing priorities reflected in India's foreign policy since 1947.

Sagarika Dutt

-Atlantic telegraph in the 1860s and cable communication across the British Empire by the 1880s. All these processes affected the Indian India in the global (political) economy subcontinent, and it is for this reason that this chapter argues that India has been a participant in the process of globalization for a long time and that this has affected the politics, economy and culture of the subcontinent. Foreign trade in pre-colonial India Since ancient times, the Indian subcontinent had active maritime trade relations with many countries around the Indian Ocean. During medieval

in India in a globalized world
Sagarika Dutt

. Foreign trade and cultural imperialism The Indians continued to trade with China and Southeast Asia. Indian exports included cotton, ivory, brassware, monkeys, parrots and elephants, while China’s 27 28 India in a globalized world exports to India consisted primarily of musk, raw and woven silk, tung oil and amber. Indian and Chinese traders used the famous silk routes of Central Asia as well as the sea route. However, neither tea nor opium had become major exports. Incidentally, India’s trade with Rome declined after the third century as the Roman economy became

in India in a globalized world
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Working for the Chinese Customs Service, 1854–1949
Author: Catherine Ladds

The Chinese Customs Service was a central pillar of the foreign presence in China, 1854-1949. Its far-reaching responsibilities included collecting duties on foreign trade, establishing China’s first postal service, participating in international exhibitions, and even diplomacy. This is the first book-length study of the 11,000 expatriates from twenty-three different countries who worked for the Customs, exploring how their lives and careers were shaped by imperial ideologies, networks and structures. In doing so it highlights the vast range of people for whom the empire world spoke of opportunity. In an age of globalisation, the insights that this book provides into the personal and professional ramifications of working overseas are especially valuable.

Empire Careers considers the professional triumphs and tribulations of the foreign staff, their social activities, their private and family lives, their physical and mental illnesses, and how all of these factors were influenced by the changing political context in China and abroad. Customs employees worked across the length and breadth of China, from the cosmopolitan commercial hub of Shanghai to isolated lighthouses. They thus formed the most visible face of imperialism in China. Contrary to the common assumption that China was merely an ‘outpost’ of empire, exploration of the Customs’s cosmopolitan personnel encourages us to see East Asia as a place where multiple imperial trajectories converged.

This book will be of interest to students and scholars of imperial history and the political history of modern China.

Crisis, reform and recovery

The Asian financial crisis of 1997-98 shook the foundations of the global economy and what began as a localised currency crisis soon engulfed the entire Asian region. This book explores what went wrong and how did the Asian economies long considered 'miracles' respond, among other things. The combined effects of growing unemployment, rising inflation, and the absence of a meaningful social safety-net system, pushed large numbers of displaced workers and their families into poverty. Resolving Thailand's notorious non-performing loans problem will depend on the fortunes of the country's real economy, and on the success of Thai Asset Management Corporation (TAMC). Under International Monetary Fund's (IMF) oversight, the Indonesian government has also taken steps to deal with the massive debt problem. After Indonesian Debt Restructuring Agency's (INDRA) failure, the Indonesian government passed the Company Bankruptcy and Debt Restructuring and/or Rehabilitation Act to facilitate reorganization of illiquid, but financially viable companies. Economic reforms in Korea were started by Kim Dae-Jung. the partial convertibility of the Renminbi (RMB), not being heavy burdened with short-term debt liabilities, and rapid foreign trade explains China's remarkable immunity to the "Asian flu". The proposed sovereign debt restructuring mechanism (SDRM) (modeled on corporate bankruptcy law) would allow countries to seek legal protection from creditors that stand in the way of restructuring, and in exchange debtors would have to negotiate with their creditors in good faith.

Author: Roger Forshaw

This volume discusses the history, culture and social conditions of one of the less well-known periods of ancient Egypt, the Saite or 26th Dynasty (664–525 BC). In the 660s BC Egypt was a politically fragmented and occupied country. This is an account of how Psamtek I, a local ruler from Sais in northern Egypt, declared independence from its overlord, the Assyrian Empire, and within ten years brought about the reunification of the country after almost four hundred years of disunity and periods of foreign domination. Over the next century and a half, the Saite rulers were able to achieve stability and preserve Egypt’s independence as a sovereign state against powerful foreign adversaries. Central government was established, a complex financial administration was developed and Egypt’s military forces were reorganised. The Saites successfully promoted foreign trade, peoples from different countries settled in Egypt and Egypt recovered a prominent role in the Mediterranean world. There were innovations in culture, religion and technology, and Egypt became prosperous. This era was a high-achieving one and is often neglected in the literature devoted to ancient Egypt. Egypt of the Saite Pharaohs, 664–525 BC reveals the dynamic nature of the period, the astuteness of the Saite rulers and their considerable achievements in the political, economic, administrative and cultural spheres.

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David Brown

In the wake of the execution of Charles I, the Adventurers gained control over the Council of State’s external trade policy, culminating in the adoption of the Navigation Act of 1651. In swift succession, they arranged finance and logistics for Cromwell’s conquest of Ireland and parliament’s reducing of the Atlantic colonies. The Caribbean plantations were converted to sugar production and the Adventurers took a leading role in adapting these plantations to the African slave trade. This chapter demonstrates that a core group of merchants dominated the greater part of England’s foreign trade, state finance and state expenditure. They had developed an integrated fiscal state and were thus able to project considerable political influence as well as profiting enormously from these activities.

in Empire and enterprise
Holly Jarman

The European Union’s Common Commercial Policy (CCP) has shaped Europe and its relationships with the rest of the world for six decades by giving central EU institutions the ability to negotiate trade deals, defend against foreign trade practices, and set the trade policy agenda for the Union. The United Kingdom often plays a central role in EU trade politics: it has the second largest GDP of any member state, is the bloc’s largest exporter of services, and has long been a mainstay of the EU’s trade liberalization agenda. This chapter examines the role of the UK in setting current EU trade policy in order to draw conclusions about the likely effects of Brexit, using data from three case studies of recent trade agreements – the EU-Canada Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement, the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership, and the EU-Singapore Free Trade Agreement – to analyze critical trade policy decisions and the coalitions supporting them. It concludes that the departure of the UK from the Common Market will have a strong destabilizing effect, not just on the economic and social wellbeing of European countries, but also on the often tenuous political consensus that underlies the CCP.

in The European Union after Brexit
Hao Gao

seriously the EIC at Canton. Nevertheless, the rapid increase in the volume of their trade, which nearly doubled between 1817 and 1830, changed the situation. This was because, in parallel with the Company's commerce with the Qing-government-authorised Hong merchants, these British ‘free traders’ developed a lucrative trade with unlicensed Chinese dealers who clandestinely engaged in foreign trade, especially in opium smuggling. Instead of using the term ‘illegal trade’, they often referred to it as the ‘unauthorised trade’. From the EIC's point of view, this trade was a

in Creating the Opium War
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Globalization theory and India
Sagarika Dutt

such as foreign invasions, foreign trade, cultural imperialism, British colonial rule and the Indian national movement. Migration from the Indian subcontinent is discussed separately in Chapter 7. These processes have forged links between Indian and other societies. In the age of globalization these links are being emphasized by both the Indian government and the media as well as the Indian diaspora. Chapter 2 examines the democratization of Indian politics. The process of constitutional development began in the nineteenth century and culminated in the drafting and

in India in a globalized world