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The international relations of a South American giant
Author: Sean W. Burges

This book contributes to the construction of an integrated analysis of Brazilian foreign policy by focusing on the country's insertion into both the regional and global system over the roughly twenty-five years through to the end of Dilma's first term as president in 2014. An attempt is made to order the discussion through exploration of a series of themes, which are further broken down into key component parts. The first section presents the context, with chapters on institutional structures and the tactical behaviours exhibited by the country's diplomacy, which will be used to guide the analysis in subsequent chapters. The second focuses on issues, taking in trade policies, the rise of Brazilian foreign direct investment, security policy and multilateralism. Key relationships are covered in the final section, encompassing Latin America, the Global South, the US and China. A central contradiction is the clear sense that Brazilian foreign policy makers want to position their country as leader, but are almost pathologically averse to explicitly stating this role or accepting the implicit responsibilities. The recurrent theme is the rising confusion about what Brazil's international identity is, what it should be, and what this means Brazil can and should do. A repeated point made is that foreign policy is an important and often overloooked aspect of domestic policies. The Dilma presidency does hold an important place in the analytical narrative of this book, particularly with respect to the chapters on trade, Brazil Inc., security policy and bilateral relations with the US and China.

This long-awaited volume featuring contributions from top African international lawyers and voices from the continent critically explores the notion of international investment law from an African perspective. It does so by confronting some of the very hard questions with regard to the relationship between international investment and development that have either eluded or not been properly addressed in contemporary scholarships. After many years of popularity, investment treaties have recently caused increasing concern among States, most prominently for the unbalanced nature of their content, the often inadequate safeguard of the regulatory powers of the host State and the shortcomings of international investment arbitration. Some States have upgraded their investment treaties, others have revised their investment treaty model, and others have opted for facilitation agreements. This innovative monograph critically explores all these contentious issues from a multidisciplinary perspective.

Denis O’Hearn

least seven years before the pundits realised there was anything wrong. This is because the source of its growth – foreign direct investment – was drying up. The same mechanisms that created Irish economic growth in the 1990s also limited its longer-term stability, as the world economy went through economic cycles including periodic economic crises where there was insufficient demand for corporate output of the kind that had concentrated in Ireland. Concurrently, the class alliances that benefited from growth – banks, financial institutions, the building sectors

in Are the Irish different?
Alain-Guy Sipowo

connection with development and foreign direct investment (FDI), it is in the traditional sense, which refers to creating a social, political and legal environment conducive to the business climate. Some authors consider that ‘a favourable climate [for business] would include access to finance and imported inputs, enforcement of contracts, reliable regulatory standards, adequate

in African perspectives in international investment law
Kieran Allen

fundamentally sound. This was based on attracting Foreign Direct Investment by identifying areas where Ireland had a comparative advantage. These were primarily an attractive rate of corporation tax and competiveness in wage costs. The model, it is suggested, only went wrong because of certain policy decisions taken in the first decade of the twenty-first century. These primarily relate to a failure to adjust taxes and public spending. As Fitzgerald put it, ‘What should have happened is that from at least 2003, fiscal policy should have been progressively tightened. This

in Ireland under austerity
Robert Mason

foreign direct investment (FDI) to sustain economic change, especially job creation. State-led capitalism, especially in rapid expansionist mode concerning mega-projects, provides some income, as does hedging in the non-oil sector, but it is not adept at providing jobs, which is a key aspect for economic development and social cohesion. The Saudi Deputy Minister for Economic Affairs Abdulaziz Al-Rasheed noted in 2018 that job creation is important since 100,000 Saudis joined the workforce in the final quarter of 2017 alone (Kane, 2018

in Oil and the political economy in the Middle East
A case of persistent semi-rentierism
Amr Adly

well as in state revenues. Despite becoming a net oil importer in 2006, and a net natural gas importer in 2012, Egypt remains heavily dependent on crude oil and gas for its foreign currency earnings. Directly, crude oil and natural gas still represent 35–40 per cent of total merchandise exports and receive around 60 per cent of net foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows. Indirectly, the Egyptian economy depends on workers’ remittances, namely, from migrant workers in oil-rich Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries in addition to large capital transfers in the form

in Oil and the political economy in the Middle East
Richard Albert Makon Ma Mbeb

Foreign Direct Investment , (4 e édition) (2008). 2 L’arbitrage est communément défini comme « un mode privé de règlement des litiges fondé sur la convention des parties ; il se caractérise par la soumission d’un litige à de simples particuliers choisis par les

in African perspectives in international investment law
Abstract only
Sean W. Burges

The mechanisms through which Brazil Inc. has moved out into the world is complex and variagated, involving obvious foreign policy and state financing initiatives and integrated cooperation amongst Brazilian firms and trail-blazing by some of the larger former state-owned and private enterprises. This chapter begins with a review of the liberalization of the Brazilian economy in the 1990s before turning to shifts in foreign direct investment patterns of the Lula era. These elements then set the stage for an exploration of how foreign policy iniatives have supported the internationalization of the Brazilian economy as a strategy for advancing national development and how the outward expansion of the economy has supported growth of Brazil's influence in South America, Africa and beyond. The dense networks of Brazilian corporate ownership captured by Sergio Lazzarini's 'capitalism of linkages' had an important impact on the internationalization of Brazilian business.

in Brazil in the world
Ireland in the 1980s
Gary Murphy

This chapter assesses the crises of the 1980s. Throughout the mid-1980s Ireland went through a ruinous recession which saw unemployment and emigration reach levels not seen since the 1950s. The Fine Gael Labour government of 1982-87 unable to get a handle on either problem eventually came to an end when Labour withdrew from office forcing an election in February 1987 in which both parties performed poorly. Falling just two seats short of an overall majority Fianna Fáil were the largest party and embarked on a political journey which aimed to restore the state’s financial position by promoting a twin pronged approach of social partnership and foreign direct investment. This chapter assesses the Ireland of 1987, examines the general election of that year and analyses the birth of the process of social partnership widely seen as being the launchpad for two decades of macro-economic stability which provided the conditions for economic success in Ireland. It also assesses the complex relationship between the state and its citizens regarding the moral questions of abortion and divorce that convulsed Irish society in the 1980s leading to a number of deeply divisive referendums.

in Electoral competition in Ireland since 1987