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This book looks at India in the context of a globalized world. It starts by looking at the history of Indian civilization, exploring the roots of Indian identity and highlighting processes such as foreign invasions, foreign trade, cultural imperialism, colonial rule and the growth of Indian nationalism. The founding fathers wanted India to be a liberal democracy and the values enshrined in the constitution were expected to form the basis of a society more in tune with the modern world. The book examines the gradual democratization of Indian politics. Cultural and ethnic divisions in Indian society are examined in depth, as are the problems that have prevented economic development and stood in the way of economic liberalization. The history of India's integration into the global economy is considered, and the opportunities available to the country in the early years of the twenty-first century are detailed. Alternative approaches to the development of the country, such as those put forward by Gandhi, are discussed, and the final chapters consider the Indian government's perception of the Indian diaspora, as well as the changing priorities reflected in India's foreign policy since 1947.

Nazanin Zadeh-Cummings
Lauren Harris

difficulties with banking and financial transactions for humanitarians, even when all activities are properly exempted and wholly legal. As explained by Heidi Linton of Christian Friends of Korea (CFK), ‘the banking channel is largely closed down, so even while it’s legal, it’s still impossible’ ( Cato, 2019 ). Previous banking options that were available to some humanitarians are no longer viable – from 2016–17, UN agencies used a Russian intermediary bank, Bank Sputnik, that was cleared for transactions with the otherwise sanctioned North Korean Foreign Trade Bank for

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Sagarika Dutt

-Atlantic telegraph in the 1860s and cable communication across the British Empire by the 1880s. All these processes affected the Indian India in the global (political) economy subcontinent, and it is for this reason that this chapter argues that India has been a participant in the process of globalization for a long time and that this has affected the politics, economy and culture of the subcontinent. Foreign trade in pre-colonial India Since ancient times, the Indian subcontinent had active maritime trade relations with many countries around the Indian Ocean. During medieval

in India in a globalized world
Sagarika Dutt

. Foreign trade and cultural imperialism The Indians continued to trade with China and Southeast Asia. Indian exports included cotton, ivory, brassware, monkeys, parrots and elephants, while China’s 27 28 India in a globalized world exports to India consisted primarily of musk, raw and woven silk, tung oil and amber. Indian and Chinese traders used the famous silk routes of Central Asia as well as the sea route. However, neither tea nor opium had become major exports. Incidentally, India’s trade with Rome declined after the third century as the Roman economy became

in India in a globalized world
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The world watch industry in 2017
Pierre-Yves Donzé

countries were available at the time of writing. Two main sources are used below: foreign trade statistics compiled by the United Nations (in its Comtrade database), and the ranking of the world's largest watch companies, based on estimates by Vontobel Bank. These sources offer a different and complementary view of the state of the world watch industry. World watch exports The figures for foreign trade in watches make it possible to distinguish between exports of complete watches and exports of components. This differentiation

in The business of time
Asif H. Qureshi

significant policy issues pertaining to the international trading system. Third, and most importantly, there is to be the establishment of a review procedure for the regular examination of individual member’s trade policies and practices – i.e. the actual Trade Policy Review Mechanism. The TPRM The criterion for the assessment of a member’s foreign trade

in The World Trade Organization
Crisis, reform and recovery

The Asian financial crisis of 1997-98 shook the foundations of the global economy and what began as a localised currency crisis soon engulfed the entire Asian region. This book explores what went wrong and how did the Asian economies long considered 'miracles' respond, among other things. The combined effects of growing unemployment, rising inflation, and the absence of a meaningful social safety-net system, pushed large numbers of displaced workers and their families into poverty. Resolving Thailand's notorious non-performing loans problem will depend on the fortunes of the country's real economy, and on the success of Thai Asset Management Corporation (TAMC). Under International Monetary Fund's (IMF) oversight, the Indonesian government has also taken steps to deal with the massive debt problem. After Indonesian Debt Restructuring Agency's (INDRA) failure, the Indonesian government passed the Company Bankruptcy and Debt Restructuring and/or Rehabilitation Act to facilitate reorganization of illiquid, but financially viable companies. Economic reforms in Korea were started by Kim Dae-Jung. the partial convertibility of the Renminbi (RMB), not being heavy burdened with short-term debt liabilities, and rapid foreign trade explains China's remarkable immunity to the "Asian flu". The proposed sovereign debt restructuring mechanism (SDRM) (modeled on corporate bankruptcy law) would allow countries to seek legal protection from creditors that stand in the way of restructuring, and in exchange debtors would have to negotiate with their creditors in good faith.


This volume discusses the history, culture and social conditions of one of the less well-known periods of ancient Egypt, the Saite or 26th Dynasty (664–525 BC). In the 660s BC Egypt was a politically fragmented and occupied country. This is an account of how Psamtek I, a local ruler from Sais in northern Egypt, declared independence from its overlord, the Assyrian Empire, and within ten years brought about the reunification of the country after almost four hundred years of disunity and periods of foreign domination. Over the next century and a half, the Saite rulers were able to achieve stability and preserve Egypt’s independence as a sovereign state against powerful foreign adversaries. Central government was established, a complex financial administration was developed and Egypt’s military forces were reorganised. The Saites successfully promoted foreign trade, peoples from different countries settled in Egypt and Egypt recovered a prominent role in the Mediterranean world. There were innovations in culture, religion and technology, and Egypt became prosperous. This era was a high-achieving one and is often neglected in the literature devoted to ancient Egypt. Egypt of the Saite Pharaohs, 664–525 BC reveals the dynamic nature of the period, the astuteness of the Saite rulers and their considerable achievements in the political, economic, administrative and cultural spheres.

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Working for the Chinese Customs Service, 1854–1949

The Chinese Customs Service was a central pillar of the foreign presence in China, 1854-1949. Its far-reaching responsibilities included collecting duties on foreign trade, establishing China’s first postal service, participating in international exhibitions, and even diplomacy. This is the first book-length study of the 11,000 expatriates from twenty-three different countries who worked for the Customs, exploring how their lives and careers were shaped by imperial ideologies, networks and structures. In doing so it highlights the vast range of people for whom the empire world spoke of opportunity. In an age of globalisation, the insights that this book provides into the personal and professional ramifications of working overseas are especially valuable.

Empire Careers considers the professional triumphs and tribulations of the foreign staff, their social activities, their private and family lives, their physical and mental illnesses, and how all of these factors were influenced by the changing political context in China and abroad. Customs employees worked across the length and breadth of China, from the cosmopolitan commercial hub of Shanghai to isolated lighthouses. They thus formed the most visible face of imperialism in China. Contrary to the common assumption that China was merely an ‘outpost’ of empire, exploration of the Customs’s cosmopolitan personnel encourages us to see East Asia as a place where multiple imperial trajectories converged.

This book will be of interest to students and scholars of imperial history and the political history of modern China.

Abstract only
David Brown

In the wake of the execution of Charles I, the Adventurers gained control over the Council of State’s external trade policy, culminating in the adoption of the Navigation Act of 1651. In swift succession, they arranged finance and logistics for Cromwell’s conquest of Ireland and parliament’s reducing of the Atlantic colonies. The Caribbean plantations were converted to sugar production and the Adventurers took a leading role in adapting these plantations to the African slave trade. This chapter demonstrates that a core group of merchants dominated the greater part of England’s foreign trade, state finance and state expenditure. They had developed an integrated fiscal state and were thus able to project considerable political influence as well as profiting enormously from these activities.

in Empire and enterprise