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Harry Blutstein

9 Free trade follies I have seen many a bear led by a man; but I never before saw a man led by a bear. (James Boswell, The Life of Samuel Johnson) Suds on the rise On 15 December 1993, Irishman Peter Sutherland brought down his gavel, ending seven and a half years of hard negotiations that created the World Trade Organization. While only involved for the last six months, Sutherland played the endgame like a chess grandmaster. Once it opened for business, the WTO liberalised trade to an unprecedented level, leading Mickey Kantor, the US Trade Representative to

in The ascent of globalisation
The case of the Liberal Democrats
Craig Berry

05c Globalisation 120-143 2/2/11 15:10 Page 120 5 The free trade dilemma: the case of the Liberal Democrats Among the political groups discussed in this book, the Liberal Democrats were the most likely to consciously associate themselves with a particular ideological tradition, that is, liberalism – indeed interviewees claimed to uphold an explicitly liberal approach to globalisation. Of course, this self-identification should not be taken at face value. It does mean, however, that it is necessary to preface a discussion of the Liberal Democrats’ discourse

in Globalisation and ideology in Britain
Issues arising from the treatment and taxation of foreign investment in the EU and NAFTA
Fiona Beveridge

. Against this background, certain regional free trade areas are worthy of close examination, since it is in the context of free trade areas that the greatest inroads have been made in the economic field in securing both the pursuit of a higher, community interest and, to this end, the subjugation of state interests to the authority of supranational institutions and to the rule of law. The objective of this

in The treatment and taxation of foreign investment under international law
Anthony Webster

nineteenth and early twentieth centuries was pivotal in the creation of an international system of free trade which facilitated the huge growth of the world economy during the period. The empire also promoted the free international movement of capital and labour which were also crucial in the development of the modern international capitalist system. 10 Secondly, Ferguson dismisses the notion, supported by many of the 'New Left', that the British empire 'underdeveloped' its colonies in Africa and Asia. He argues that under British rule, their potential for growth and

in The Debate on the Rise of the British Empire
How Adam Smith became a free trade ideologue
Keith Tribe

2 Natural liberty and laissez faire: how Adam Smith became a free trade ideologue KEITH TRIBE The principal object of Political Economists is to enlighten mankind, by showing how their wealth and well-being may be most effectually promoted. And this Adam Smith has done better than anyone else. He has shown that, speaking generally, the riches and comforts that are universally desired will be procured with the least difficulty and in the greatest abundance by allowing individuals to pursue their own interest in their own way, subject only to the condition of

in Adam Smith's Wealth of Nations
Towards international disciplines
Author:

This book examines some of the challenges which globalisation throws up for the international community from a legal perspective. It focuses on two aspects of the treatment of foreign investment by states: the general rules concerning access, operation and expropriation of foreign investment and the lex specialis of international taxation. The book describes the implications for developing states which have in the past resisted the international law rules relating to expropriation of foreign investment and sought instead the development of a new international economic order including inter alia the establishment of binding rules addressing the behaviour of transnational corporations. It traces the development of new legal concepts and techniques in different contexts and locations: in bilateral relations, in multilateral conventions and negotiations and in regional economic integration systems. The wide scope of the Uruguay Round and the linking of the separate agreements in the WTO 'package' serve to illustrate how the battle between old and new ideological strands can be played out simultaneously in different ways in different locations and with different results; it serves to highlight how ideology drives the transfer and leakage of legal concepts and principles from one field to another. Many developing states have signed up to the WTO Agreements and have embraced the free trade orthodoxy in other areas. But recent and future developments in relation to the treatment and taxation of foreign investment will constitute in some areas an assault on long-held ideological constructs hitherto shielded from or accommodated within other free trade developments.

Neoliberalism, free trade and the global economy
Author:

The ‘globalisation’ concept has become ubiquitous in British politics, as it has in many countries of the world. This book examines discourse on foreign economic policy to determine the impact of globalisation across the ideological landscape of British politics. It critically interrogates the assumption that the idea of globalisation is derivative solely of neo-liberal ideology by profiling the discourse on globalisation of five political groups involved in making and contesting British foreign economic policy between 1997 and 2009: New Labour, International Financial Services London, the Liberal Democrats, Oxfam and the Socialist Workers Party. In addition to the relationship between neo-liberalism and globalisation, the book also explores the core meaning of the idea of globalisation, the implications for the principle of free trade, the impact on notions of the state, nation-state and global governance, and whether globalisation means different things across the ideological spectrum. Topically, it examines how the responses to the global financial crisis have been shaped by globalisation discourse and the value of ideology as an analytical concept able to mitigate debates on the primacy of material and ideational explanations in political economy.

Open Access (free)
The Politics of Infectious Disease
Duncan McLean
and
Michaël Neuman

’ ( Rieff, 2002 : 63). In pure geopolitical terms, nineteenth century sanitary debates between contagionists and anti-contagionists often took on nationalistic tones, pseudo-scientific interpretations of quarantine regulations conveniently hinging on perceived benefits (or lack thereof) from free trade and eventual access to the Suez Canal ( Chakrabarti, 2014 : 85–6). Contemporary examples are likewise not hard to come by. The portrayal of migrants, irrespective of their status, as

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
An Interview with Celso Amorim, Former Brazilian Foreign Minister
Juliano Fiori

many mistakes with respect to multilateralism. A significant one was to give less attention to the WTO [the World Trade Organisation]. He focused much more on the Trans-Pacific Partnership than global agreements. The Republicans also invested in the FTAA [Free Trade Area of the Americas], but, in my opinion, there was more commitment to economic multilateralism under Bush than under Obama. With another Republican president, the pendulum might have swung back anyway, but it is swinging fast with Trump. Now, I am not sure which sectors of American

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Batman Saves the Congo: How Celebrities Disrupt the Politics of Development
Alexandra Cosima Budabin
and
Lisa Ann Richey

public–private partnerships trend in humanitarian response and sustainable development, it builds on the liberal theory of peace through (free) trade. It seeks to harness foreign capital and work aid out of business to revive the shattered production and trade in cocoa and coffee in the conflict-marred Northeastern part of the Congo, 15 all the while appealing to the ethical American consumer to buy into luxury treats and support good causes. Both celebrity-led corporate

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs