The best way to approach the northern Cape frontier zone is via an understanding of the significance of the frontier in South African history. The only way to do this, however, is to come to terms with the concept of the frontier itself, a concept ‘umbilically attached to Frederick Jackson Turner, a historian half a century dead, whose theories have

in Colonial frontiers
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Indigenous–European Encounters in Settler Societies
Editor: Lynette Russell

Cross-cultural encounters produce boundaries and frontiers. This book explores the formation, structure, and maintenance of boundaries and frontiers in settler colonies. The southern nations of Australia, New Zealand and South Africa have a common military heritage as all three united to fight for the British Empire during the Boer and First World Wars. The book focuses on the southern latitudes and especially Australia and Australian historiography. Looking at cross-cultural interactions in the settler colonies, the book illuminates the formation of new boundaries and the interaction between settler societies and indigenous groups. It contends that the frontier zone is a hybrid space, a place where both indigene and invader come together on land that each one believes to be their own. The best way to approach the northern Cape frontier zone is via an understanding of the significance of the frontier in South African history. The book explores some ways in which discourses of a natural, prehistoric Aboriginality inform colonial representations of the Australian landscape and its inhabitants, both indigenous and immigrant. The missions of the London Missionary Society (LMS) in Polynesia and Australia are examined to explore the ways in which frontiers between British and antipodean cultures were negotiated in colonial textuality. The role of the Treaty of Waitangi in New Zealand society is possibly the most important and controversial issue facing modern New Zealanders. The book also presents valuable insights into sexual politics, Aboriginal sovereignty, economics of Torres Strait maritime, and nomadism.

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international history of migration. This volume restores to the historiography agents and opportunists at present excluded by virtue of their nationality, their status, their silence, or through sheer neglect: destitute White Russian refugees, wealthy Baghdadi Jewish merchants, working-class British men, Japanese petty bourgeois traders, German anti-imperialists, French and American citizens, and the indigenous subjects (and agents) of empire – Chinese, Korean and Taiwanese. Imperialism made a wild frontier zone of East Asia, and the story of

in New frontiers
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German encounters abroad, 1798-1914

With an eye to recovering the experiences of those in frontier zones of contact, Savage worlds maps a wide range of different encounters between Germans and non-European indigenous peoples in the age of high imperialism. Examining outbreaks of radical violence as well as instances of mutual co-operation, it examines the differing goals and experiences of German explorers, settlers, travellers, merchants, and academics, and how the variety of projects they undertook shaped their relationship with the indigenous peoples they encountered.

Whether in the Asia-Pacific region, the Americas or Africa, within Germany’s formal empire or in the imperial spaces of other powers, Germans brought with them assumptions about the nature of extra-European peoples. These assumptions were often subverted, disrupted or overturned by their own experience of frontier interactions, which led some Germans to question European ‘knowledge’ of these non-European peoples. Other Germans, however, signally failed to shift from their earlier assumptions about indigenous people and continued to act in the colonies according to their belief in the innate superiority of Europeans.

Examining the multifaceted nature of German interactions with indigenous populations, the wide ranging research presented in this volume offers historians and anthropologists a clear demonstration of the complexity of frontier zone encounters. It illustrates the variety of forms that agency took for both indigenous peoples and Germans in imperial zones of contact and poses the question of how far Germans were able to overcome their initial belief that, in leaving Europe, they were entering ‘savage worlds’.

This book is about the rise of Christian dualism and its influence in the Byzantine world. Before the seventh century there had been dualist religions like Gnosticism and Manichaeism which contained Christian elements, but they were theosophical movements, based on myths which were not Christian, although they could be interpreted in a Christian sense. The Christian dualism preached by Constantine of Mananalis in the mid-seventh century was truly Christian because it was based on the authority of the New Testament alone. Christian dualism began with Constantine of Mananalis who lived in the reign of Constans II, and the Byzantine Empire ended with the conquest of Constantinople by the Sultan Mehmet II in 1453. The book focuses on two areas of Christian dualism. The first is the Tondrakian movement in Armenia, which appears to be cognate with, but not identical to, Paulicianism. Superficially Bogomilism seemed to have a good deal in common with Paulicianism. The second area which the authors have only dealt with in a limited way is Bosnia, which though on the frontiers of the Byzantine world was not part of it. Tefrice became a refuge for Paulicians who were persecuted in the Byzantine Empire, and Carbeas is said also to have offered attractive terms to non-Paulician Byzantines who would come and settle in this dangerous frontier zone.

to western frontier zones in Australia from 1965 to 1995. Demographic and statistical trends reveal the pervasive and growing presence of New Zealanders in Australian frontier zones during the latter part of the twentieth century. Oral histories and written narratives provide fascinating insights into New Zealanders’ new and often confronting experiences in frontier Australia

in New Zealand’s empire
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from the hybrid nature of the frontier zone as Godwin is concerned with the interactive aspects of the hybrid space. In an analysis of the role played by the Native Mounted Police (NMP), Godwin reflects on the role of the intercultural negotiator. This is a role that has been much neglected by historical research, too easily are such people dismissed as ‘uncle toms’ or traitors. Godwin carefully prods the

in Colonial frontiers
Roads, colonization and environmental transformation in the Anglo-Scottish border zone, c. 1100 to c. 1300

to market centres at home and, via the new ports, to the wider road network of the empire in western mainland Europe; linked governmental centres to the heavily policed and militarized frontier zones; and carried the armoured fist of Roman military power far beyond the ‘hard’ political frontiers formed by the defensive systems of forts, walls and signal towers that separated the Roman ‘us’ from the barbarian ‘them’ into territories that were dominated, that is, subject to the political, economic and cultural influences of the neighbouring power whilst remaining

in Roadworks
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areas was at best sporadic. Punitive columns of Indian troops could be sent into the Frontier zone, but in default of expensive continuous occupation, such occasional visitations were transient in their effects. The emergence of the aeroplane as a weapon to enforce government demands irreversibly altered the balance of power between the central state and the societies on its geographical margins. The Royal Air Force was often

in Air power and colonial control

assembly of its governors, overthrown the tyrants who defended the island, attacking them night and day before bringing death and perdition to them; and he did not cease to wield his sword and lance against them, until he had rendered himself master of the whole island by his victories, and had conquered Sicily, district by district, unceasingly taking over the frontier zones [ taghr ]; and all that in the space

in Roger II and the creation of the Kingdom of Sicily