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Open Access (free)
Terrell Carver

Introduction Like all concepts in political theory, gender has a history. Unlike most of these concepts, though, the history of gender is comparatively short. The term itself originated in the nineteenth century, arising in the context of descriptive and diagnostic social sciences of human behaviour. It was only adopted into political theory, as a result of a political process of struggle, about 100

in Political concepts
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Amy Bryzgel

Artists from the West should constantly thank God that they were spared the experience that artists from former socialist countries had. — Natalia LL, 2015 The issue of gender, not to mention feminism, in Central, Eastern and Southeastern Europe remains complicated and fraught. Prior to 1989, the ‘woman question’ was largely considered to have been resolved throughout the region on an official level, with gender equality a stated priority of socialist governments. 1 Across the East, women benefited from equal access to jobs, childcare and often equal pay

in Performance art in Eastern Europe since 1960
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Jonathon Shears

4 •• Gender In Chapter 1 we saw that the Exhibition was often presented as a triumph for what Auerbach (1999) has termed ‘sophisticated organisation’ and a group of ‘capable men’. This was part of a careful strategy designed to reassure the press and public. The physical arrangement of objects within the Crystal Palace, however, could not match the theoretical system. The mismatch between design and realisation suggests to Isobel Armstrong that ‘an anxiety of taxonomy is evident throughout Exhibition rhetorics, acknowledging that it could not be a monologic

in The Great Exhibition, 1851
Author: Sara Mills

This book is an analysis of the complex links between social relations—including notions of class, nationality and gender—and spatial relations, landscape, architecture and topography—in post-colonial contexts. Arguing against the psychoanalytic focus of much current post-colonial theory, it aims to set out in a new direction, drawing on a wide range of literary and non-literary texts to develop a more materialist approach. The book foregrounds gender in this field where it has often been marginalised by the critical orthodoxies, demonstrating its importance not only in spatial theorising in general, but in the post-colonial theorising of space in particular. Concentrating on the period of ‘high’ British colonialism at the close of the nineteenth century, it examines a range of colonial contexts, such as India, Africa, America, Canada, Australia and Britain, illustrating how relations must be analysed for the way in which different colonial contexts define and constitute each other.

Representing women?
Author: Elizabeth Evans

This book provides an exploration of women's representation and the third party in UK politics. Based on extensive research, it is a comprehensive gendered analysis of the Liberal Democrats and the research highlights specific institutional factors within the Liberal Democrats that directly impact upon the party's low number of women MPs. The book explores the extent to which the party's ideology, culture and organisation are dominated by a prevailing masculine bias and questions why the Liberal Democrats continue to overwhelmingly return white, middle-aged, male MPs to Westminster. It highlights a number of findings: the Liberal Democrats' low number of women MPs is due to demand rather than supply; the party have not selected a sufficient number of women in winnable or target seats; the lack of women MPs undermines the party's pro-women policies; and women's interests have not been mainstreamed within the Liberal Democrats. Together, these conclusions address substantive questions regarding the Liberal Democrats' numerical under-representation of women MPs and the extent to which they can act for and symbolically represent women. The book demonstrates the importance of using gender as a tool for analysing the culture, organisation and political recruitment of British political parties. Its contribution lies in the empirical findings and its ability to address wider conceptual debates.

Open Access (free)
Conceptual links to institutional machineries
Kathleen Staudt

40 CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORKS 2 Gender mainstreaming: conceptual links to institutional machineries kathleen staudt We enter the new millennium with a quarter-century of experience in reflection and practice about women and subsequently gender in development. This experience builds on the voices of many diverse people who share stakes in and support a broad definition of development, used here to mean the enhancement of human capacity in a world that sustains, rather than undermines, its natural resources.1 Such enhancement can hardly occur in a world lacking good

in Mainstreaming gender, democratizing the state?
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Karen Throsby

118 6 Gendering swimming It is almost 9 a.m. on a cloudy morning in June 2009. My friend, Jenny, and I are standing on the pebble beach of Dover harbour, stripping down to the swimming costumes we put on under our clothes when we got dressed this morning. Another fifty or so swimmers are also there – both relays and solo swimmers – most training for English Channel crossings that season. A  six-hour swim today for the solo swimmers. Jenny and I are a little late, and we can hear the shouts and laughs of swimmers already entering the water. We apply thick

in Immersion
Megan Daigle, Sarah Martin, and Henri Myrttinen

. In these spaces, the intersectional threats – that is, compounding and distinctive forms of marginalisation and risk 2 – faced by non-white (especially local) staff, those of diverse sexual orientations, gender identities and expressions and sex characteristics (SOGIESC) or those with disabilities are often not factored in. Conversely, threats to (white) women staff are cast as a kind of ‘stranger danger’ – emanating from non-white locals and militant actors rather than

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
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Tradition and taboo
Guy Austin

Case studies: Omar Gatlato (Merzak Allouache, 1976), La Nouba des femmes du Mont Chenoua (Assia Djebar, 1978), La Citadelle (Mohamed Chouikh, 1988) Gender is one of the most vexed questions in modern Algeria and has been approached in diverse films of different genres

in Algerian national cinema
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Sue Harris

offensiveness has frequently been equated with an expression of misogyny on the part of the director, which is seen as a reductive and aggressive attitude towards the female subject, and by extension the female spectator. There is considerable evidence, at least on a surface level, to support this view; what it fails to take account of, however, is that Blier’s preferred modes of gender representation which, as we have seen

in Bertrand Blier