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An introduction

History in the historiographical sense is made by us, not by people in the past, nor by the record of their actions. This book facilitates the critical reading of works of history. It looks at the historical profession, its predilections and traditions. The Whig interpretation of history has been chosen to illustrate the relationship between historiography and a prevalent culture because of its central role in the period when the historical profession began to establish itself in England and because of its continuing popular and political influence. The book acts as a guide to reading historiographical texts, looking at the relationship between 'facts' and 'theories', and at 'meta-narrative' and causation. The book examines the issues of planning and structuring in the process of writing an essay. It offers a guide to the writing of academic history at undergraduate level and to the skills involved, and contrasts this with the non-academic uses of history. The book talks about some gender historians who viewed gender identities as expressions of social change within a wider society. It explores the unique fascination that the Nazis has exercised on both academic and popular historiography, along with the allied study of the Holocaust. The book also explores the works of Marxist historians associated with the Communist Party Historians' Group and considers the earlier approaches to cultural history, as influences on the Group, and the development of newer theoretical positions that developed both out of and in opposition to Marxism. The developments in British historiography are discussed.

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Roger Spalding and Christopher Parker

contexts. 4 The reference to semiotics is indicative of the influence of postmodernism on Gender historians. Semiotics is usually defined as the science of signs, signs in this context meaning the conveyors of significance, or meaning. Gender history did not spring into the world fully formed, it was preceded by and grew out of an approach that focused on one gender, and viewed relationships between genders in terms of a dynamic historical process, this was what was called ‘Women’s History’. This was a sub-discipline that emerged out of the women’s liberation

in Historiography
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Anna Green and Kathleen Troup

the absence of their lives and experience from most of the historical writing produced in universities. Gerda Lerner pointed out that ‘[w]omen’s history is indispensable and essential to the emancipation of women.’ 3 Indeed, ‘[t]o be without history is to be trapped in a present where oppressive social relations appear natural and inevitable. Knowledge of history is knowledge that things have changed and do change.’ 4 This chapter concentrates on the ways in which gender historians have worked to redress women’s invisibility. While initially gender historians

in The houses of history
Emotional inflammation, mental health and shame in Britain during the September crisis
Julie V. Gottlieb

is expanding – this is a literature concerned with the psychological, psychoanalytical and psychiatric dimensions of the ‘people’s war’. More recently too, cultural, material culture, literary and gender historians have begun to think more elastically about the prelude to war, as a history from below and/or a history of mentalities. For example, Shapira has demonstrated that in the course of the 1930s there was a shift ‘from the problem of “shell-shocked” soldiers to that of civilians panicking at the prospect of enemy aerial attack’, 2 and she has examined how

in The Munich Crisis, politics and the people
Author: Zoë Thomas

Women Art Workers constitutes the first comprehensive history of the network of women who worked at the heart of the English Arts and Crafts movement from the 1870s to the 1930s. Challenging the long-standing assumption that the Arts and Crafts simply revolved around celebrated male designers like William Morris, this book instead offers a new social and cultural account of the movement, which simultaneously reveals the breadth of the imprint of women art workers upon the making of modern society. Thomas provides unprecedented insight into how women – working in fields such as woodwork, textiles, sculpture, painting, and metalwork – navigated new authoritative roles as ‘art workers’ by asserting expertise across a range of interconnected cultures so often considered in isolation: from the artistic to the professional, intellectual, entrepreneurial, and domestic. Through examination of newly discovered institutional archives and private papers, and a wide range of unstudied advertisements, letters, manuals, photographs, and calling cards, Women Art Workers elucidates the critical importance of the spaces around which women conceptualised alternative creative and professional lifestyles: guild halls, exhibitions, homes, studios, workshops, and the cityscape. Shattering the traditional periodisation of the movement as ‘Victorian’, this research reveals that the early twentieth century was a critical juncture at which women art workers became ever more confident in promoting their own vision of the Arts and Crafts. Shaped by their precarious gendered positions, they opened up the movement to a wider range of social backgrounds and interests, and redirected the movement’s radical potential into contemporary women-centred causes.

Protection of animals in nineteenth-century Britain
Author: Diana Donald

This book explores for the first time women’s leading roles in animal protection in nineteenth-century Britain. Victorian women founded pioneering bodies such as the Battersea Dogs’ Home, the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, and the first anti-vivisection society. They intervened directly to stop abuses, promoted animal welfare, and schooled the young in humane values via the Band of Mercy movement. They also published literature that, through strongly argued polemic or through imaginative storytelling, notably in Anna Sewell’s Black Beauty, showed man’s unjustifiable cruelty to animals. In all these enterprises, they encountered opponents who sought to discredit and thwart their efforts by invoking age-old notions of female ‘sentimentality’ or ‘hysteria’, which supposedly needed to be checked by ‘masculine’ pragmatism, rationality and broadmindedness, especially where men’s field sports were concerned. To counter any public perception of extremism, conservative bodies such as the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals for long excluded women from executive roles, despite their crucial importance as donors and grassroots activists. However, women’s growing opportunities for public work in philanthropic projects and the development of militant feminism, running in parallel with campaigns for the vote, gave them greater boldness in expressing their distinctive view of animal–human relations, in defiance of patriarchy. In analysing all these historic factors, the book unites feminist perspectives, especially constructions of gender, with the fast-developing field of animal–human history.

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Clarisse Berthezène and Julie V. Gottlieb

, feminist historians have shown little interest in Conservative women. On the flip side, the history of feminism has largely been written as a history of women’s emancipation and, as such, inextricably aligned with a progressive tradition defended by the Left.12 Of course, what came to be known as ‘domestic feminism’ within the Conservative Party may seem very far from feminism as defined by gender historians. Yet, these women Conservatives felt they addressed specifically ‘women’s issues’. The vice-­chair of the Conservative Party organisation in 1945, Marjorie

in Rethinking right-wing women
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Angela Davis

believes that the first wish of feminist history, ‘to fill the gaps and silences of written history, to uncover new meanings for femininity and women, to project sexuality to the forefront of the political mind’, shares some of the intentions of psychoanalysis. The ‘discovery of a subjective history through image, symbol and language’ is central to both. Judy Giles believes psychoanalytic theory’s recent emphasis on symbolic and linguistic structures has provided gender historians with new approaches to the historical construction of gendered subjectivities.7 Graham

in Modern motherhood
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Scholarly personae: what they are and why they matter
Herman Paul

, body, and soul’, Chapters 3 and 4, on the antebellum United States and the French Third Republic, draw attention to relatively stable patterns underlying such variety, such as the Romantic notion of the author as an individual. Chapter 5, on Edward A. Freeman and his female assistants, shows to what extent this individual was male-gendered: ‘historian’ was not a role identity that women could easily claim. Interpreting controversies among early-twentieth-century Chinese historians through the prism of scholarly personae, Chapter 6 makes a case for the concept being

in How to be a historian
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1870 – the civilising moment?
Rosalind Crone

’s lives stretching back through the pre-industrial period, and second Crone, Violent Victorians.indd 264 16/01/2012 10:49:41 epilogue : 18 7 0 – the civilising moment ? 265 questioning whether the great insistence on Separate Spheres in the sources might actually be evidence of its unreality, as contemporary authors attempted to encourage a stricter adherence to its central tenets.25 Since then, our understanding of the lives of women in the nineteenth century has become far more nuanced; the concept of Separate Spheres is still used by many gender historians, but

in Violent Victorians