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For over five decades, the Cold War security agenda was distinguished by the principal strategic balance, that of a structure of bipolarity, between the United States (US) and the Soviet Union (USSR). This book seeks to draw from current developments in critical security studies in order to establish a new framework of inquiry for security in the Middle East. It addresses the need to redefine security in the Middle East. The focus is squarely on the Arab-Israeli context in general, and the Palestinian-Israeli context in particular. The character of Arab-Israeli relations are measured by the Israeli foreign policy debate from the 1950s to the 1990s. A dialogue between Islam and Islamism as a means to broaden the terrain on which conflict resolution and post-bipolar security in the Middle East is to be understood is presented. The Middle East peace process (MEPP) was an additional factor in problematizing the military-strategic concept of security in the Middle East. The shift in analysis from national security to human security reflects the transformations of the post-Cold War era by combining military with non-military concerns such as environmental damage, social unrest, economic mismanagement, cultural conflict, gender inequity and radical fundamentalism. By way of contrast to realist international relations (IR) theory, developing-world theorists have proposed a different set of variables to explain the unique challenges facing developing states. Finally, the book examines the significance of ecopolitics in security agendas in the Middle East.

Place, space and discourse
Editors: and

Identity is often regarded as something that is possessed by individuals, states, and other agents. In this edited collection, identity is explored across a range of approaches and under-explored case studies with a view to making visible its fractured, contingent, and dynamic features. The book brings together themes of belonging and exclusion, identity formation and fragmentation. It also examines how identity functions in discourse, and the effects it produces, both materially and in ideational terms. Taking in case studies from Asia-Pacific, Europe, the Middle East and Latin America, the various chapters interrogate identity through formal governing mechanisms, popular culture and place. These studies demonstrate the complex and fluid nature of identity and identity practices, as well as implications for theorising identity.

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Pioneering Feminist
Ada Uzoamaka Azodo

Africa and the calling of the freedom fighter who uses the gun to protest against racism. Hence, art for art’s sake was not an option for the African writer, for art must be subordinated to politics. Four main literary themes – racial inequality, gender inequity, cultural emancipation, and Western destruction of African societies and traditions – are predominant in Bâ’s work. 9 In the struggle for political independence, nationalism led to a proliferation of coups d’état, ethnic-fuelled conflicts and civil wars, resulting in a lack of

in The Pan-African Pantheon
Jonathan Gershuny

, of the household panel survey work which he partly inspired, and in the time-use research which he encouraged, is a major resource for tackling the remaining gender inequities in the distribution of work. And finally: the informal economy? This for me transitional term has now become subsumed within a vocabulary more firmly located in established social science. That hidden sphere of economic activity which forced itself on my attention as I tried to substantiate Bell’s thesis, is now firmly established within the United Nations System of National Accounts

in Revisiting Divisions of Labour
Salutations from a Dutch queen’s supporters in a British South Africa
Susie Protschky

political statement, one that was particularly meaningful for a key group of her supporters: women. The oorkonden from Wilhelmina’s female supporters in South Africa reveal how the Dutch queen, in this part of the world as elsewhere, served as an exemplar for contemporary women’s movements. As a female king, Wilhelmina drew attention both to the gendered inequities among colonial populations and the

in Crowns and colonies
Women and leadership in co-operatives
Barbara Rawlings
Linda Shaw

the gendered division of domestic work, the organisation and nature of women’s work, the organisation and nature of trade union work, and the masculine culture of trade unions.14 In developed countries, there is a greater wealth of studies of cooperative history, which not only remind us of the deep-seated nature of gender inequities but also of the ways in which they have been challenged. Here, the experience of the UK co-operative movement seems pertinent. The modern consumer co-operative movement began in 1844 when the Rochdale Equitable Pioneers Society opened

in Mainstreaming co-operation
An analysis of post-2006 Timor-Leste
Sarah Smith

sexual violence in conflict, yet notes that women’s political, social and economic empowerment, as well as the recruiting boys and 58 Establishing and consolidating identity men into prevention programmes, are essential to combating sexual violence in conflict and post-conflict situations.2 While recognising victimisation in conflict is necessary, it is problematic when this is the only way that women achieve visibility (Schnabel and Tabyshalieva 2012), and where it is atomised from the broader context of gender inequity within which it occurs. Moreover, one can

in The politics of identity
Foregrounding the body and performance in plays by Gina Moxley, Emma Donoghue and Marina Carr
Mária Kurdi

where the furious Noel pushes Ber for her ‘lies’ with such vehemence that she falls to the ground. Cactus’s mimicry replays gender inequity with excess, leading to a fatal outcome which exemplifies the latent danger underlying the ‘original’. Unwilling to conform to the gender rules which require her to remain passive and wait to be courted, Cactus refuses to perform the role of the subordinate ‘other’ in the conventional way. Her acts reverse elements of the given system and, bringing about disorder and destruction, expose the oppressive tendencies lurking in the

in Irish literature since 1990
Catherine L. Benamou
Leslie L. Marsh

– that important cultural, juridical and public health issues tied to gender identity have been placed at the centre of the national agenda. The persistent work on these issues, in fact, has allowed Brazil to remain visible on the global radar as a nation aware of (if not fully past) its own areas of gender inequity. Through both direct representations and creative approaches to allegory in their work

in Hispanic and Lusophone women filmmakers
Colette Gaiter

considered men’s jobs. Both the Black Panther artists and Cultural Revolution artists depicted women in leadership positions and regularly showed them armed.26 By the end of the 1960s the majority of the rank-and-file members of the BPP were women. However, gender equality was sometimes easier to illustrate than to achieve in real life. Party women spoke out against gender inequity within the organisation rather than in the public arena, knowing that the BPP fundamentally valued women as revolutionaries.27 Challenging demeaning US mass-mediated representations of black

in Art, Global Maoism and the Chinese Cultural Revolution